When it comes to weight loss, the number one question I get asked is NOT – how do I lose weight?
I always get asked: how do I control my appetite?
I want to lose weight, but I’m always hungry.
I can’t diet because I can’t stop eating.
How do I stop being hungry all the time?
How do I stop craving foods I know aren’t good for me?
I’m ashamed of my body and lack of control.
If you are tired of battling hunger and your weight, I want you to know your fight is not with food.
You just haven’t understood what your body has been trying to tell you.
So I’m going to share the weight loss journey I take my clients on to help you understand your body and undo misunderstandings about weight, weight loss, appetite, and how your body is always communicating with you.
To begin with – you need to know that starving yourself to lose weight is NOT the answer.
Your body is already starving – not for food that your hunger and cravings seem to demand but for the ingredients (chemistry) your body needs to restore balance.
Secondly – there is nothing wrong or deficient about you as a person – it’s time to ditch shame and guilt.
Self-loathing thoughts and feelings help nothing and no one.
Instead – it’s time to nourish and nurture yourself – and get excited about the potential your body has to heal when it is given the right ingredients to be healthy.
From now on, instead of dieting to lose weight, I want you to think of yourself as restoring your metabolic health.
Most of my clients hate the word ‘diet’ because of their past experiences of ‘failing’ to lose weight.
So before we go any further, it’s really important to understand what diet means.
Diet does not mean calorie counting and deprivation.
Diet is the scientific definition for everything you eat and drink all of the time.
Diet includes your eating patterns – what and when you eat and drink.
And no matter what you eat and drink – that is your diet.
What’s more important to understand is WHY you even need to eat and drink.
UNDERSTANDING YOUR BODY
Your body is a miraculous creation.
From the hair on your head to your toenails, you are made up of trillions of single cells.
The body you see when you look at yourself in a mirror is the combined activities of different types of cells with different functions – working together.
At a fundamental level, there are only two things your cells are doing – creating energy and using energy – in a continual cycle that keeps you alive.
If this cycle is not broken, your internal environment remains in a state of balance and order (homeostasis), called health.
BUT there is one thing your cells cannot do. They cannot create the elements they need to produce energy.
WHAT YOUR CELLS NEED TO THRIVE
There are roughly 92 (it’s argued 90-94) naturally occurring chemical elements on earth that are the building blocks of everything in life – including you.
The different cell types in your body have different balances of elements that are used for growth, function, repair, and reproducing themselves.
Your cells live and die and are continually being replaced.
And all of these activities in (and between) the cells of your body are the result of different elements reacting to one another.
It’s mind-boggling to think that your body is actually a never-ending, uncountable series of chemical reactions.
(And you thought you knew yourself!)
Exactly how many reactions occur in the human body nobody knows.
What is known is:
1. With all the chemical reactions occurring in your body, the original elements are either altered or completely used up.
2. Your cells cannot create these original elements. They need to be replaced.
3. No matter how small (trace) or large (macro) the requirement, different naturally occurring elements are essential for maintaining optimal health.
The very reason why you eat and drink is to provide the elements (ingredients) your cells need to survive and thrive.
Nutrition is the process of you providing the elements (food, nutrients, chemistry) necessary for your cells to function effectively.
What you eat and drink either nurtures or undermines your cells’ functioning ability.
And that’s why nutrition and health are inseparable.
Another myth that needs to be debunked is the belief that your metabolism is like a genetic lottery that you either win or lose.
I’ve lost count of the times people have told me they put on weight easily because they have a slow metabolism.
Metabolism is not a fixed part of your body.
Metabolism is all the chemical processes occurring continuously in your body that provide energy to maintain your life and health (homeostasis, balance).
Metabolism processes include breaking down (digesting) the food you eat into nutrients that can be absorbed by your cells and other functions that maintain and repair your body.
And at the centre of it all is your gut microbiome and the balance of trillions of gut microorganisms living in your gut.
If you were a ship, your gut microbiome is your engine room – your primary source of energy, activity, and resilience.
But if you have nutritional deficiencies and gut dysbiosis (microflora imbalance), your metabolism will be affected and will be slower.
The good news is your body is designed to heal, and you can change your metabolism.
You can restore and repair your metabolic health by giving your body the right ingredients (chemistry, nutrition).
Another myth to bust is that cravings are somehow a personal failing.
Cravings and excessive appetite do not occur because you lack willpower and are to blame.
Cravings are often a symptom of nutrient deficiencies – especially the minerals chromium, magnesium and zinc.
Cravings are also related to hormone imbalances and the state of your microbiome – the trillions of microorganisms that live in your gut.
It’s now recognised that cravings are influenced by opportunistic pathogens (disease causing microorganisms) in your gut that can cause infection under certain circumstances.
Candida yeast overgrowth (Candidiasis fungal infection) is linked to sugar cravings.
Yeast thrives on glucose (sugar) and refined carbohydrates.
Fungal infections are a perfect example of what can happen when there is an imbalance between the types of microorganisms present in your gut (gut dysbiosis).
Cravings are also linked to lifestyle – which includes sleep quality, stress management, physical activity, your mindset, and unresolved emotional trauma.
Health is holistic, which means hunger and cravings are influenced by every part of you – your physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual state of balance.
This blog is focussing on the nutrition you need for appetite control so you can improve your ability to lose weight.
But I will cover all aspects of healthy weight management in future weight loss blogs.
HOW TO CONTROL YOUR APPETITE
In decades of consulting, I have met thousands of people who have ‘failed’ to lose weight no matter what diet they have tried.
They come to me with shattered confidence and a lot of self-blame.
So, I want to emphasise – YOU ARE NOT A FAILURE!
You didn’t know what your body needed to restore metabolic balance.
Your ability to control your appetite, lose weight, burn fat, balance blood sugars, overcome insulin resistance, and even where fat is stored in your body is directly linked to your hormones.
Your hormones are directly influenced by your gut microorganisms – they are inseparable.
Many hormone imbalances begin because of gut dysbiosis (imbalance).
To control your appetite, balance your hormones, and improve your ability to lose weight you need to restore your gut microbiome.
PREBIOTICS FOR APPETITE CONTROL
You restore beneficial microflora (good gut bacteria) by feeding them what they need to be strong and plentiful.
Healing your microbiome means increasing the amount of fibre you eat and eating foods that have a prebiotic action.
Prebiotics feed and boost the growth and activity of beneficial gut microorganisms.
If you don’t feed your beneficial gut microorganisms, they starve to death, undermining every cell and system in your body.
I recommend you slowly increase the number of prebiotic foods you eat.
Aim to eventually eat 5-7 servings of prebiotic foods every day.
Organic and biodynamic food is always best to eat – foods grown without chemicals and pesticides that harm human health.
You can find a list of foods good gut microflora thrives on in my blog, Your Gut Microbiome & Why Prebiotics Are Essential.
RENER METABOLISM DRINK
I also want to give you a drink recipe to help you control your appetite, restore gut function and your microbiome, prevent constipation, and soothe inflammation.
This drink is also designed to help you feel full between meals.
It’s an easy, effective recipe you drink three times a day.
You simply combine partially hydrolysed guar gum soluble fibre (PHGG) and our Nourish prebiotic breakfast drink.
If you haven’t used our Nourish drink powder before, click here on the link to my Nourish blog, where I share how and why I created a drink for restoring gut imbalances.
If you are intermittent fasting, following a keto diet, or you don’t eat breakfast, you can still have this drink first thing in the morning to feed your gut microflora and boost your metabolic health.
1 Australian metric teaspoon of Nourish prebiotic drink powder.
1 Australian metric teaspoon of PHGG
1 cup of organic plant-based milk – almond, hemp, oat, Bonsoy, or water if you follow a keto diet.
The ingredients are mostly soluble, so whisk, blend, or use a drink shaker to make your drink.
Have your metabolic drink between meals – upon rising, mid-morning, and mid-afternoon.
If you are still hungry after your evening meal, you can make up a fourth drink one hour after eating.
Once you get on top of your hunger and cravings, reduce the metabolism drink to twice daily between meals until you reach your ideal weight goal.
I recommend plant-based milk to my clients to avoid the hormone called insulin growth factor (IGF) found in animal milk products.
If you drink animal dairy products, please buy organic milk to avoid hidden antibiotics.
You can add a few drops of pure monk fruit extract to sweeten your drink (it’s natural and sugar-free).
You can also add a dash of organic Ceylon cinnamon or Cardamom powder for added flavour and metabolic benefits.
You can even add a teaspoon of raw cacao if you feel like a chocolate shake (good for fat burning).
Make sure you stay well hydrated (2 litres daily) when you increase fibre in your diet.
And if you don’t think you can drink two litres of pure water a day, swap it out for herbal teas – hot or cold – especially green tea to help you boost your metabolism.
Or you can flavour water with 50-100mls of organic, unsweetened pomegranate juice.
Pomegranate juice is used to inhibit pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria and yeast overgrowth in your gut microbiome.
You can always add a couple of drops of liquid monk fruit extract to sweeten the pomegranate juice.
Our prebiotic Nourish blend is used in this recipe to soothe gut inflammation and encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria.
Studies show that prebiotics improve gut microbial metabolism and metabolic functions in treating and preventing diabetes and weight problems.
Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) is used to support intestinal & colon health and relieve flatulence, bloating, indigestion, constipation, and diarrhoea.
PHGG acts as a prebiotic to encourage the growth of health–promoting gut bacteria (bifidobacterium).
PHGG provides gentle constipation prevention in both children and adults.
PHGG mildly boosts bowel frequency, stool moisture, and the presence of Lactobacilli (friendly bacteria).
PHGG also improves glucose and fat metabolism to prevent obesity.
Clinical studies show that partially hydrolysed guar gum fibre (PHGG) helps appetite control by delaying the time food passes through your gut and boosting the satiety (feeling full) hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK) in your gastrointestinal (GI) system.
An Australian metric teaspoon of PHGG weighs 2 grams.
The recommended daily dose for PHGG is 5-7 grams, so don’t overdo it. More is not always better.
If you are not used to a high fibre content in your diet, start slowly with PHGG.
Some people experience increased flatulence (gas, farting) and gut symptoms when they increase the fibre content in their diet.
These symptoms usually settle once your microflora adapts to the change in your diet.
When you begin taking PHGG, use only a quarter of a spoon in your metabolism drink for two days.
If you experience no gut symptoms, then increase the dose to half a teaspoon for 2 days.
If all is well taking half a teaspoon for two days, then increase the dose to a full teaspoon of PHGG.
Ceylon cinnamon is used to inhibit candida, enhance fat metabolism, and soothe inflammation.
Cardamom is a digestive stimulant and diuretic that is also used to boost metabolism and burn fat more effectively.
Raw Cacao is used to decrease hunger and sweet cravings and increase fat burning (fat metabolism).
I’ve included live links to studies in the blog reference section so you can learn more about all the ingredients I use with my clients.
The more you learn about your body and health, the more empowered you become.
My goal as a practitioner is to help free my clients from suffering by sharing knowledge and skills they can use to gain and maintain health naturally.
Freedom from suffering is what I want for you too.
PROBIOTICS FOR APPETITE CONTROL
Eating probiotic (beneficial microorganisms) fermented foods every day will further strengthen your gut microbiome.
Fermented foods and probiotic supplements boost the different strains (types) of beneficial gut microorganisms.
Getting professional advice about the right probiotic supplement for you is always best.
There are many probiotic strains and even dairy-free formulas for people who are lactose (milk) intolerant or eat a plant-based diet.
Talk to your naturopath.
And, try to eat a range of probiotic foods daily.
Probiotic foods include:
Live (real) Organic yoghurt – unsweetened, free of additives and flavouring.
Cultured Greek yoghurt – unsweetened, free of additives and flavouring.
Cultured Coconut yoghurt – unsweetened, free of additives and flavouring.
Kefir – a cultured, fermented milk drink.
Kombucha – a slightly fizzy drink made from fermented black tea.
Kvass – a fermented drink made from rye, berries, herbs and honey.
Tepache – made from the peel and the rind of pineapples and cinnamon.
Kimchi – a spicy, traditional Korean sauerkraut made from fermented vegetables.
Natto – a traditional Japanese dish made from fermented soybeans.
Miso – fermented soybean paste used as seasoning and making soup.
Tempeh – a traditional Indonesian food made from fermented soybeans.
Sauerkraut –fermented, finely sliced cabbage with a salty and sour flavour.
Fresh organic green peas.
Fermented pickled vegetables.
Organic or biodynamic (only) apples are abundant in beneficial bacteria.
Organic apple cider vinegar with the mother.
Organic, aged Gouda cheese.
Organic Paneer – a raw Indian cheese rich in probiotics.
DITCH WHAT MAKES YOU HUNGRY
You also need to ditch foods that make you hungry and more prone to storing excess fat.
It’s time to clean out your pantry!
DITCH JUNK FOOD
The worst foods for gut and metabolic health are highly processed (refined) foods stripped of fibre and nutrients.
Any processed food high in saturated fats, salt, synthetic chemical additives and preservatives, high fructose corn syrup, and hidden sugars is metabolic junk.
Junk foods (and drinks) increase inflammation, undermine metabolism, and damage your gut and beneficial gut bacteria.
Junk foods are also highly addictive.
The good news is the less junk food you eat, the less you crave them.
BEST FOODS FOR APPETITE CONTROL
Replace processed foods with organic • biodynamic • unrefined • unprocessed • high-fibre • whole grain foods • raw nuts and seeds • and organic fruits and vegetables.
Beans curb appetite too – white and black beans • kidney beans • chickpeas • lentils • and soybeans (edamame).
You can add beans to salads, stir-fries, curries, soups, and wraps.
1-2 cups of beans a day will keep you feeling full.
DITCH HARMFUL SWEETENERS
Eliminate all foods containing high fructose corn syrup, which is found in thousands of processed foods people eat daily – including commercially baked bread.
High fructose corn syrup slows down your metabolism and could be another reason why you can’t control your appetite.
Ditch sugar substitutes too.
Avoid artificial (synthetic) sweeteners and plant-based sugar alcohols too.
Sugar substitutes can undermine your gut microbiome and can cause metabolic imbalances.
Side effects from sugar substitutes can include digestive symptoms, bloating, gut bacteria imbalances (dysbiosis), metabolic syndrome, glucose intolerance, weight gain, and increased risks of several cancers.
Artificial sweeteners include saccharin (Sweet‘n’Low), acesulfame, aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet), neotame, and sucralose (Splenda).
Sugar alcohols (polyols) include sorbitol, mannitol, erythritol, xylitol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt.
Please don’t eat sugar substitutes or any processed foods containing sweeteners that harm good gut flora.
I recommend pure monk fruit liquid extract or powder, or pure stevia to sweeten food and drinks when you want to lose weight.
You can learn more about monk fruit in my blog: Pure Monk Fruit Sweetener Benefits.
Monk fruit is used in Chinese herbal medicine for metabolic disorders and weight management.
Monk fruit is very sweet yet sugar-free.
Other natural sweeteners that support a healthy gut microbiome include:
Pure raw honey.
Unsulphured blackstrap molasses.
Pure organic maple syrup.
If you’re really craving something sweet – eat a line of organic dark chocolate or a Medjool date.
And if you’re prone to craving sweet foods, it could be because of mineral deficiencies.
Talk to your naturopath about a mineral supplement formulated with chromium, magnesium and zinc for blood sugar support.
NEXT UP IS FAT BURNING
I’m going to end here while you clean out your pantry, start eating more prebiotic and probiotic foods, and enjoy the benefits of your metabolism drink.
This is the first blog in my weight loss series.
Next, I’ll be sharing nutrient dense foods and recipes that can help you improve your ability to burn fat and lose weight in a healthy way.
I’m excited for you.
All the very best,
Lisa Rieniets NDShop Now
We include live links to studies in our references so you can explore published research on the gut microbiome, metabolic health, weight loss, and appetite control.
The more you learn about your body, the more your relationship with food changes.
And the more you begin to appreciate the miracle you are.
GUT MICROBIOME & WEIGHT LOSS
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Jian, C., Silvestre, M.P., Middleton, D. et al. Gut microbiota predicts body fat change following a low-energy diet: a PREVIEW intervention study. Genome Med 14, 54 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073-022-01053-7
Koutoukidis DA, Jebb SA, Zimmerman M, Otunla A, Henry JA, Ferrey A, Schofield E, Kinton J, Aveyard P, Marchesi JR. The association of weight loss with changes in the gut microbiota diversity, composition, and intestinal permeability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut Microbes. 2022 Jan-Dec;14(1):2020068. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2021.2020068. PMID: 35040746; PMCID: PMC8796717.
Pucci A, Batterham RL. Endocrinology of the Gut and the Regulation of Body Weight and Metabolism. [Updated 2020 Apr 25]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Blackman MR, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556470/
van Son J, Koekkoek LL, La Fleur SE, Serlie MJ, Nieuwdorp M. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in the Gut–Brain Axis in Obesity: Mechanisms and Future Implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):2993. https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/6/2993/
PROBIOTICS & PREBIOTICS
Aoun A, Darwish F, Hamod N. The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Obesity in Adults and the Role of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for Weight Loss. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2020 Jun 30;25(2):113-123. doi: 10.3746/pnf.2020.25.2.113. PMID: 32676461; PMCID: PMC7333005. (Prebiotics & weight loss)
Megur A, Daliri EB, Baltriukienė D, Burokas A. Prebiotics as a Tool for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity and Diabetes: Classification and Ability to Modulate the Gut Microbiota. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 May 29;23(11):6097. doi: 10.3390/ijms23116097. PMID: 35682774; PMCID: PMC9181475. (Prebiotics improve metabolism)
PHGG – PARTIALLY HYDROLYSED GUAR GUM
Aoki T, Oyanagi E, Watanabe C, Kobiki N, Miura S, Yokogawa Y, Kitamura H, Teramoto F, Kremenik MJ, Yano H. The Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Gut Microbiota in Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum Intake Mice under High-Fat Diet Feeding. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2508. (PHGG & Gut microflora)
Okamura T, Hamaguchi M, Mori J, Yamaguchi M, Mizushima K, Abe A, Ozeki M, Sasano R, Naito Y, Fukui M. Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum Suppresses the Development of Sarcopenic Obesity. Nutrients. 2022 Mar 9;14(6):1157. doi: 10.3390/nu14061157. PMID: 35334814; PMCID: PMC8955723. (PHGG helps prevent obesity)
Rao, T., Hayakawa, M., Minami, T., Ishihara, N., Kapoor, M., Ohkubo, T., . . . Wakabayashi, K. (2015). Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum. British Journal of Nutrition, 113(9), 1489-1498. doi:10.1017/S0007114515000756. (PHGG for appetite control)
Rao TP. Role of guar fiber in appetite control. Physiol Behav. 2016 Oct 1;164(Pt A):277-83. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.06.014. Epub 2016 Jun 15. PMID: 27317834. (PHGG appetite control)
Yasukawa Z, Inoue R, Ozeki M, Okubo T, Takagi T, Honda A, Naito Y. Effect of Repeated Consumption of Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum on Fecal Characteristics and Gut Microbiota: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, and Parallel-Group Clinical Trial. Nutrients. 2019 Sep 10;11(9):2170. doi: 10.3390/nu11092170. PMID: 31509971; PMCID: PMC6769658. (PHGG gut microflora)
TRUE CINNAMON & CARDAMOM
Jiang J, Emont MP, Jun H, Qiao X, Liao J, Kim DI, Wu J. Cinnamaldehyde induces fat cell-autonomous thermogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. Metabolism. 2017 Dec;77:58-64. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2017.08.006. Epub 2017 Sep 1. PMID: 29046261; PMCID: PMC5685898. (True Ceylon cinnamon)
Pires, Regina & Montanari, Lilian & Martins, Carlos Henrique & Zaia, José & Almeida, Ana & Matsumoto, Marcelo & Mendes Giannini, Maria Jose. (2011). Anticandidal Efficacy of Cinnamon Oil Against Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. Mycopathologia. 172. 453-64. 10.1007/s11046-011-9448-0. (True Ceylon cinnamon)
Rahman MM, Alam MN, Ulla A, Sumi FA, Subhan N, Khan T, Sikder B, Hossain H, Reza HM, Alam MA. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2017 Aug 14;16(1):151. doi: 10.1186/s12944-017-0539-x. PMID: 28806968; PMCID: PMC5557534. (Cardamom)
Singletary, Keith PhD. Cardamom: Potential Health Benefits. Nutrition Today 57(1):p 38-49, 1/2 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/NT.0000000000000507 (Cardamom)
Hernández-González T, González-Barrio R, Escobar C, Madrid JA, Periago MJ, Collado MC, Scheer FAJL, Garaulet M. Timing of chocolate intake affects hunger, substrate oxidation, and microbiota: A randomized controlled trial. FASEB J. 2021 Jul;35(7):e21649. doi: 10.1096/fj.202002770RR. PMID: 34164846. (Cacao suppresses hunger)
Jean-Marie E, Bereau D, Robinson J-C. Benefits of Polyphenols and Methylxanthines from Cocoa Beans on Dietary Metabolic Disorders. Foods. 2021; 10(9):2049. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092049 (Cacao for metabolic disorders)
Katz DL, Doughty K, Ali A. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011 Nov 15;15(10):2779-811. doi: 10.1089/ars.2010.3697. Epub 2011 Jun 13. PMID: 21470061; PMCID: PMC4696435.
Latif R. Health benefits of cocoa. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013 Nov;16(6):669-74. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328365a235. PMID: 24100674.
Martin FP, Rezzi S, Peré-Trepat E, Kamlage B, Collino S, Leibold E, Kastler J, Rein D, Fay LB, Kochhar S. Metabolic effects of dark chocolate consumption on energy, gut microbiota, and stress-related metabolism in free-living subjects. J Proteome Res. 2009 Dec;8(12):5568-79. doi: 10.1021/pr900607v. PMID: 19810704. (Cacao effects on gut microflora)
Latif AS, Saparbekova AA, Akhmedova ZR, Kaldybekova G, Daugaliyeva ST. Probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Az-12 isolated from pomegranate juice presented inhibitory effects against pathogenic bacteria. Braz J Biol. 2023 Aug 11;83:e271997. doi: 10.1590/1519-6984.271997. PMID: 37585928. (Pomegranate inhibits disease bacteria)
Zarfeshany A, Asgary S, Javanmard SH. Potent health effects of pomegranate. Adv Biomed Res. 2014 Mar 25;3:100. doi: 10.4103/2277-9175.129371. PMID: 24800189; PMCID: PMC4007340. (Pomegranate for candida)
CORN SYRUP & OBESITY
Johnson, RJ, Sánchez-Lozada, LG, Lanaspa, MA. The fructose survival hypothesis as a mechanism for unifying the various obesity hypotheses. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2023; 1-11. doi:10.1002/oby.23920. (High fructose corn syrup)
SUGAR CONSUMPTION & OBESITY & HEALTH
Epner M, Yang P, Wagner RW, Cohen L. Understanding the Link between Sugar and Cancer: An Examination of the Preclinical and Clinical Evidence. Cancers. 2022; 14(24):6042. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246042
Gao X, Qi L, Qiao N, Choi HK, Curhan G, Tucker KL, Ascherio A. Intake of added sugar and sugar-sweetened drink and serum uric acid concentration in US men and women. Hypertension. 2007 Aug;50(2):306-12. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.091041. Epub 2007 Jun 25. PMID: 17592072.
Gillespie KM, Kemps E, White MJ, Bartlett SE. The Impact of Free Sugar on Human Health-A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2023 Feb 10;15(4):889. doi: 10.3390/nu15040889. PMID: 36839247; PMCID: PMC9966020.
Johnson RJ, Nakagawa T, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Shafiu M, Sundaram S, Le M, Ishimoto T, Sautin YY, Lanaspa MA. Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity. Diabetes. 2013 Oct;62(10):3307-15. doi: 10.2337/db12-1814. PMID: 24065788; PMCID: PMC3781481.
Van Ende M, Wijnants S, Van Dijck P. Sugar Sensing and Signaling in Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Front Microbiol. 2019 Jan 30;10:99. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00099. PMID: 30761119; PMCID: PMC6363656. (Sugar cravings and Candida yeast infections)
Yang Q, Zhang Z, Gregg EW, Flanders WD, Merritt R, Hu FB. Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(4):516–524. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13563.
Lenhart A, Chey WD. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Polyols on Gastrointestinal Health and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Adv Nutr. 2017 Jul 14;8(4):587-596. doi: 10.3945/an.117.015560. PMID: 28710145; PMCID: PMC5508768. (Sugar alcohols)
Pearlman M, Obert J, Casey L. The Association Between Artificial Sweeteners and Obesity. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2017 Nov 21;19(12):64. doi: 10.1007/s11894-017-0602-9. PMID: 29159583. (Artificial sweeteners)
Richardson IL, Frese SA. Non-nutritive sweeteners and their impacts on the gut microbiome and host physiology. Front Nutr. 2022 Aug 25;9:988144. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.988144. PMID: 36091255; PMCID: PMC9453245.
Ruiz-Ojeda FJ, Plaza-Díaz J, Sáez-Lara MJ, Gil A. Effects of Sweeteners on the Gut Microbiota: A Review of Experimental Studies and Clinical Trials. Adv Nutr. 2019 Jan 1;10(suppl_1):S31-S48. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy037. Erratum in: Adv Nutr. 2020 Mar 1;11(2):468. PMID: 30721958; PMCID: PMC6363527.
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