Nutrition For Health & Weight Loss

Healthy Weight Loss must also involve restoring Gut Health, Metabolic Health,and Fat Metabolism.


Maintaining your health and a healthy weight can be challenging at different ages and stages of life – especially as we age.

My clients often ask me – What will help me burn fat and lose weight?

And throughout decades of consulting, I have found there is no single universal answer to losing weight.

YES – what you eat is essential in a healthy weight-loss plan.

BUT – there’s much more to losing weight than the food and drinks you consume.

You must also address metabolic imbalances and restore functions that enable you to burn fat and lose weight.

Metabolism, though, is not just about your ability to burn fat and calories.

Metabolism is all the chemical reactions in and between the cells and organs of your body that sustain your life.

Your cells are doing two things – they are creating energy and using energy in a never-ending cycle.

Metabolic health is the result of how well your cells generate and process energy.

I’ve found with my clients that the four most common metabolic imbalances that contribute to weight issues and difficulty losing weight are:

1. Gut dysbiosis.

2. Systemic inflammation.

3. Insulin resistance, and an

4. Underactive thyroid.

Restoring metabolic health is essential for healthy weight loss and improving your ability to burn fat.

Restoring metabolic health is also essential for overcoming sickness and preventing disease.

I use the same naturopathic principles for both.

And the good news is you can restore metabolic health at any age or stage of your life.

Four most common metabolic imbalances connected to weight loss and fat burning difficulties are Gut dysbiosis, Systemic inflammation, Insulin resistance, and an Underactive thyroid.


Gut dysbiosis is an imbalance in the numbers and diversity of the trillions of microorganisms (microflora) that live in your gastrointestinal tract that starts from your mouth to your anus.

We depend on vast communities of microorganisms (microbiomes) that live and interact in (and on) our bodies to keep us alive.

When I work with clients to restore their gut and metabolic health, I begin with imbalances in the gut microbiome.

Many factors influence gut dysbiosis, such as diet, lifestyle, stress, drugs, antibiotics, diseases, environmental toxins, and age.

Gut dysbiosis impacts your ability to lose weight because your gut microorganisms directly influence glucose (blood sugar) and fat metabolism.

Prolonged gut dysbiosis leads to insulin resistance, which increases glucose in the blood, which then encourages fat storage.

You can faithfully follow a diet and exercise daily and still find it hard to lose weight if you do not have the correct balance and variety of beneficial gut microorganisms.

Every system in your body is affected by the trillions of microorganisms found in your gut.

Restoring your gut microbiome improves your ability to lose weight successfully (and keep it off).

Diagram depicts a healthy balanced gut versus what happens when the gut and microbiome become imbalanced (gut dysbiosis).


You also need to address the issue of inflammation throughout your body.

Most of your immune system is centred in your gut.

If your gut microbial communities become imbalanced (gut dysbiosis), it directly affects your immune system, triggering inflammation.

Systemic (entire body) inflammation occurs when your immune system constantly creates an inflammatory response trying to defend your body.

Stress, infection, chronic diseases, and gut dysbiosis eventually put your body in a hyperactive inflammatory state.

And weight issues are directly linked to inflammation.

Chronic (ongoing) inflammation impacts how insulin works and can lead to higher glucose levels and fat accumulation.

Inflammation also affects hormone regulation and your body’s hunger signalling.

Diagram depicts the cycle of insulin resistance when cells resist insulin and store blood glucose as fat.


Insulin resistance is another leading cause of weight gain and difficulties in losing weight.

Your pancreas produces the hormone insulin.

Insulin regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood.

With insulin resistance, your cells don’t respond properly to insulin.

Glucose can’t enter cells easily, so it builds up in the blood and is stored as fat.

Losing weight with insulin resistance is more difficult because your body keeps storing blood sugar as fat.

You restore insulin sensitivity by repairing your gut microbiome, restoring resistant cell membranes, correcting nutritional deficiencies, managing stress, and increasing exercise to build muscle.

Diagram depicting the role of the thyroid and thyroid hormones, including metabolism and body weight.


An underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) is another common condition that affects the ability to lose weight.

Autoimmune disorders also contribute to thyroid and weight issues.

Thyroid hormones regulate essential metabolic processes, including fat and glucose metabolism and energy levels.

Your metabolism slows down when your thyroid doesn’t create and release enough hormones.

You can feel tired, gain weight, and feel more sensitive to the cold.

Some people also experience constipation, brittle nails, dry skin, thinning hair, aches and pains, brain fog, poor memory, and feeling low.

Chronic stress, poor nutrition, low-grade stealth infections, and exposure to environmental toxins (particularly synthetic chemicals and heavy metals) are major contributing factors that directly affect your thyroid.


One of the best things we can all do for human health is say NO to synthetic chemicals and heavy metals.

Certain synthetic chemicals act as hormone disruptors and interfere with thyroid function.

Hormone-disrupting chemicals are found in plastics, pesticides, flame retardants, artificial food preservatives and colourings, non-stick cookware, liquid hand soap, body wash, mouthwash, toothpaste, cosmetics, make-up, personal care products, paint, and cleaning products.

Heavy metals are metallic elements that are toxic to our cells, disrupt our systems, cause hormone imbalances, accumulate in our organs, and are classified as cancer-causing (carcinogenic).

Exposure to heavy metals is widespread because they are used in industrial and agricultural procedures, manufacturing, mining, medicine, and technology.

The effects of synthetic chemicals and heavy metals on human health are why I firmly believe we should all:

• Eat certified organic or biodynamic food.

• Store food in glass containers.

• Cook food in stainless steel or heatproof glass.

• Clean with chemical-free products.

• Use organic cosmetic and personal care products.

• And ditch plastic anything.

Foods that help boost an underactive thyroid include seaweed foods, wild-caught salmon, organic eggs, coriander (detox heavy metals), and eat three to four Brazil nuts daily.

Berries, dietary fibre, and cruciferous vegetables also support thyroid function.


I also work with my clients to create lifestyle strategies that help them reduce chronic stress.

Constantly bombarding your body with stress hormones undermines thyroid function.

Learning how to heal and deal with stress is one of the best gifts you can give yourself.

Whether it’s healing trauma, strengthening your ability to recover from painful circumstances, learning how to say no to what you don’t want and asserting what you need – stress management skills are essential for restoring and maintaining your health and hormones.

Diagram depicting the central role of your gut microbiome in metabolism, immune strength, and brain function.


As a naturopath, healthy weight loss involves helping my clients restore metabolic imbalances (including nutrient deficiencies).

It’s much harder to burn fat and lose weight if you don’t address metabolic imbalances in your weight-loss journey.

In this guide, I’m sharing general naturopathic strategies that can help you:

Reduce inflammation.

• Restore the diversity and numbers of beneficial gut microflora in your gut.

• Improve insulin sensitivity so your body doesn’t store glucose as fat, and

• Regulate thyroid function.

These are general guidelines for the average adult person.

Nutritional needs differ at different ages and stages in life.

Also, if you are pregnant, you’re an athlete, or you suffer from an autoimmune or chronic disease, you will need to seek advice from a qualified practitioner who can help you with your nutritional needs.


What works to lose weight for you can be as individual as you are.

I work with my clients to create solutions that work for them – including their culture and lifestyle.

If you’ve eaten junk food all your life, big dietary changes will not work for you – to begin with.

If you shock your body with food withdrawals, you’ll be more likely to self-sabotage your weight loss goal – especially if you have addictions to sugar and highly refined junk foods.

A Mediterranean diet will not work for someone from a culture where European foods are ‘foreign’ to them or unavailable.

I have clients who are busy raising children, working, and barely coping with all that’s required.

I also have clients with metabolic or immune disorders that require sensitive dietary adjustments as they heal.

There is no one-size-fits-all answer when it comes to what you should eat to burn fat and lose weight.

Do what fits your life – or you will eventually set yourself up for failure – especially in maintaining weight loss.

I believe diet should never be a controlled prescription that you end up resenting and then sabotaging.

I don’t ask my clients to count calories or weigh food with every meal.

Many of my clients are already overwhelmed managing their busy lives.

I’m not going to add more pressure.

Instead, we focus on gradual lifestyle changes my clients can embrace because as you get better, you do better.

Studies show that diets that are flexible and can be adapted according to a person’s lifestyle lead to better adherence and weight loss success.

Your diet is what you eat the most.

No matter your culture or lifestyle, you can create a healthy diet you enjoy eating – that will also help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

Diagram depicting a nutrition wheel and how the elements in the food we eat impact the function of our different organs and systems.


The best diet is one that provides the elements (nutrients) your body needs to function effectively and maintain a balance we experience as health (homeostasis).

The Mediterranean diet is successful for losing weight because it offers a balance of essential nutrition.

Nutrition is the core solution to restore metabolic function and improve your ability to lose weight.

In my blog, Appetite Control For Weight Loss, I share the foods your body needs for optimal metabolic health.

If you haven’t read my appetite control blog yet, start your weight loss journey there.

Because when you understand how your body functions, it’s much easier to change your food choices and let go of what harms you.

I also ask my clients, what did your grandparents and great-grandparents eat (before 1950)?

Your ancestral history can indicate the types of food that better suit your metabolism.

Our ancestors didn’t eat the highly processed foods now consumed world-wide that are devoid of essential nutrition.

And chronic diseases were not at epidemic rates as they are now – globally.

I highly recommend you eat organic or biodynamic fresh produce that’s free from pesticides and synthetic chemicals that harm health.

You also need to provide your body with a variety of different types and amounts of food (nutrients).

A balanced diet helps you burn fat, balance glucose metabolism, and restore gut and metabolic health, especially when the foods you eat contain soluble and insoluble dietary fibre.

Benefits of dietary fibre for weight loss. High fibre in the diet helps reduce inflammation, boost metabolic health, nourish your gut microflora - which directly influences fat and glucose metabolism.


Research continually reveals that fibre promotes weight loss and improves dietary adherence (sticking to a healthy diet).

Sticking to an eating plan is an essential part of weight loss success.

But rather than imposing a rigid restricted eating regime, there are ways you can lose weight by adjusting what you eat.

Studies have found that participants who met dietary fibre goals of 20 grams per day stuck to their eating plans and lost more weight comparatively.

Fibre helps slow the absorption of sugar in your gut and nourishes your gut microorganisms, which in turn boosts metabolism.

And soluble fibre blocks fats that would otherwise be digested and absorbed.

You increase fibre by eating ‘whole’ (unprocessed) foods most of the time – as close as nature creates them.

Eat foods that have undergone the least amount of processing – whole grain, whole meal, unrefined, fresh produce, natural.

Food in its whole form provides balanced nutrient ratios that promote better digestion, absorption, and healthier weight management.

Whole foods are full of antioxidants, macro and micronutrients, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes, and fibre.

Organic and biodynamic whole foods also don’t contain added sugars, synthetic additives, synthetic preservatives, synthetic sweeteners, synthetic chemicals, or unhealthy fats that harm health and undermine your ability to lose weight.

No matter what your health goal is, work towards eliminating highly refined, processed foods that are stripped of fibre and nutrition.

High-fibre whole foods keep you feeling full and satisfied for longer (appetite control) and help you metabolise fat, control your blood sugar, and lose excess weight in a healthy way.

Aim to eat 25 grams of combined soluble and insoluble dietary fibre for women and 30 grams for men daily.


Most of my clients tend to be busy people. They don’t have time to research the nutritional content of foods or weigh what they eat.

So, I devised an easier way to help my clients achieve higher fibre levels in their diets that you can easily adapt to your lifestyle too.

And I’ve included the dietary fibre content of a range of foods in the following Food Portions section, so you can create meals that fulfil your daily fibre requirements.

Every day, make sure you eat:

3 cups of chopped vegetables: provides an average of 10-15 grams of fibre depending on the vegetables you eat.

• 2 servings of raw fruit: provides an average of 5 grams of fibre depending on the fruit you eat.

• 1/4 of a cup (27g) of raw walnuts (preferably organic): provides 2 grams of fibre.

• 1/4 a cup of beans (legumes): provides ≃ 4-8 grams of fibre depending on the beans you eat.

• 1/4 a cup of whole, fibre-rich carbohydrates of your choice: provides ≃ 2-8 grams of fibre depending on the carbohydrates you eat (see food lists below).

• plus a 1/4 of a cup of organic oat bran in your morning smoothies, porridge, or yoghurt: provides ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Fruit and vegetables, including legumes (beans) and whole grain carbohydrates, are nutrient-dense foods rich in fibre, essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that can help you restore metabolic imbalances, reduce inflammation, and lower your risk of chronic diseases.

Walnuts are rich in essential omega-3 fatty acids.

Regular walnut consumption has been shown to promote weight loss, improve cholesterol (lipid) profiles, and is associated with less long-term weight gain.

Beans are fantastic for weight loss too.

Studies have found that regular consumption of beans results in lower food consumption, increased appetite control and satiety (feeling full), less body and belly fat, improved gut and heart health, better control of body weight, as well as better blood lipids and glucose control.

It’s so important to understand food and the right portions to eat – for creating and maintaining a healthy weight, repairing metabolic function, restoring health, and preventing disease.

Eating correct food percentages provides your body with an optimum balance of macro and micro nutrition necessary for restoring and maintaining health, and reducing excess weight.


Diet is the source of energy (fuel) and nutrients your body needs to perform its functions and maintain optimum balance (homeostasis, metabolic health).

A balanced diet provides a combination of both macronutrients (you need larger amounts) and micronutrients (essential smaller amounts).

Eating the correct amount of different food types (portions) provides your body with an optimum balance of macro and micro nutrition necessary for restoring and maintaining health.

A nutritionally balanced diet replaces elements (nutrients) your body has used up (creating and using energy to keep you alive) that it cannot produce itself.

Food portions help fulfil your body’s nutritional needs.

Your body needs fruit and vegetables, whole grain carbohydrates high in fibre (including prebiotic fibre), protein, healthy fats, vitamins and minerals, probiotics, and pure water in different amounts for optimum nutrition.


Fruit and vegetables (including herbs and spices) provide essential vitamins, minerals, and plant chemicals (antioxidants and phytonutrients) that restore metabolic imbalances, regulate hormones, reduce inflammation, correct dysbiosis, lower toxic bacteria, protect your cells from damage, support your immune system, and prevent disease.

50% of your daily diet needs to be fruit and vegetables.

To make meal planning easier for you, work towards eating 3 cups of vegetables (including salads and legumes) and 2 servings of fruit (berries for weight loss) every day.

You can eat more vegetables – the minimum recommendation is 3 cups of vegetables daily.

And eat a variety of vegetables (a rainbow of colours) to provide a variety of nutrients – including leafy greens, red and yellow and green and orange vegetables, root vegetables, beans and peas (legumes), and fresh herbs and spices to add deliciousness and health benefits to your meals.

You can find healthy recipe ideas for vegetables in our Healthy Eating Directory.


You need to eat unprocessed carbohydrates to provide fuel for your brain, nervous system, muscles, organs, and metabolic processes.

Health-promoting carbohydrates include fibre-rich whole grains, raw nuts and seeds, fruit and vegetables.

You also need dietary fibre to feed beneficial gut microorganisms.

The daily recommended fibre intake is 25 grams for women and 30 grams for men.

I recommend the following foods to most of my clients for their health-promoting properties.

They are fibre-rich and nutrient-dense.


Whole Grains

Amaranth: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Barley: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 9 grams fibre.

Black forbidden rice: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Brown rice: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Buckwheat: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 5 grams fibre.

Chia seeds: 1 tbsp raw ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Linseeds (flaxseed): 1 tbsp raw ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Millet: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Oat bran (organic only): ¼ cup raw ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Psyllium husks: 1 tsp raw ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Quinoa: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Rice bran (organic only): 1 tbsp raw ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Rye flour (wholegrain): ¼ cup baked ≃ 8 grams fibre.

Spelt flour (wholegrain): ¼ cup baked ≃ 5 grams fibre.

Sprouted whole grain bread: ≃ 3 grams of fibre per slice.

Wild rice: ¼ cup (41g) boiled ≃ 3 grams fibre.


Black beans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 7 grams fibre.

Butter beans (lima): ¼ cup boiled ≃ 7 grams fibre.

Cannellini beans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 8 grams fibre.

Chickpeas: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Edamame (baby soybeans): ¼ cup boiled ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Kidney beans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 7 grams fibre.

Lentils: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Pinto beans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 7 grams fibre.

Soybeans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Nuts & Seeds

Brazil nuts (only 2 per day): 8 grams raw ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Pumpkin seeds (pepitas): ¼ cup raw ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Walnuts (organic): ¼ cup raw ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Fruit & Vegetables

Acai berries: ¼ cup raw ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Apples (organic only): 1 medium-sized raw ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Artichokes: 1 medium-sized (120g) boiled ≃ 10 grams fibre.

Asparagus, fresh: 1 cup cooked ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Avocadoes: 1 medium-sized raw ≃ 6 grams fibre.

Beans, green: ¼ cup (40g) raw or cooked ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Beetroot (beets): 1 average-sized (170g) beet, raw or steamed ≃ 5 grams fibre.

Blackcurrants: ¼ cup fresh ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Blueberries: ¼ cup fresh ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Broccoli: 1 cup chopped and steamed ≃ 5 grams fibre.

Cabbage: 1 cup cooked ≃ 5 grams fibre.

Capsicum (bell peppers): 1 medium-sized raw ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Carrots: 1 cup grated, raw ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Cauliflower: large 125g portion steamed ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Celery: 1 large stick raw or stir-fried ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Cherries: ¼ cup raw ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Coconut, fresh: 50 gram portion ≃ 5 grams fibre.

Coconut (desiccated): ¼ cup ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Cranberries (dried): ¼ cup ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Cucumber: 1 cup chopped, raw with skin ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Dates (Medjool): 1 date raw ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Fermented vegetables such as sauerkraut and kimchi – ¼ of a cup per day.

Goji Berries (dried): ¼ cup ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Goldenberries (cape gooseberries): ¼ cup ≃ 6 grams fibre.

Kiwifruit: 1 kiwi (75g) raw ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Leeks: 1 leek (200g) sauteed ≃ 4 grams fibre.

Mangoes: 1 mango raw (200g) ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Mushrooms (particularly Shitake): 1 cup sliced ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Olives (5-10 black or green olives daily): ≃ 1.5 grams fibre per 10 olives.

Onions, red: ¼ cup (37g) raw or cooked ≃ 1 gram fibre.

Papaya (paw paw): 1 cup cubed papaya raw ≃ 5.2 grams fibre.

Peas, fresh: ¼ cup (38g) raw or cooked ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Pineapple: 1 thin slice raw ≃ 2 grams of fibre.

Pomegranate: ¼ cup of raw arils ≃ 3.5 grams of fibre.

Pumpkin: 1 cup steamed ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Raspberries: ¼ cup fresh ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Rocket (arugula) 2 cups raw ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Romaine lettuce: 1 head ≃ 8 grams fibre.

Seaweed (particularly Nori, Kelp and Wakame for weight loss) – for snacks and salad sprinkles.

Spring onions (scallions): 100 grams chopped and sautéed ≃ 3 grams fibre.

Sweet potatoes: 1 average portion (225g) ≃ 7 grams fibre.

Tomatoes, cherry (vine-ripened, organic only): ½ cup (125g) ≃ 2 grams fibre.

Zucchinni (courgette): medium (225g) cooked or raw ≃ 2 grams fibre.


I haven’t included foods from all countries and cultures BUT you can find the fibre and nutrient content of most foods online. is a free-to-use nutrition database with over 2000 ingredients, and recipes too.

Once you learn the nutritional content of healthy foods available where you live, you can easily plan meals that fit your daily routine.

Healthy Weight Loss - probiotic Nourish & PHGG for appetite control - page divider.


Prebiotic fibre is essential for feeding beneficial gut microorganisms and calming inflammation.

Prebiotics are soluble (they dissolve in liquid) dietary fibres and nutrients that have a prebiotic effect.

I share the importance of prebiotics in my blog Your Gut Microbiome & Why Prebiotics Are Essential.

I use prebiotics widely for most health conditions, including restoring metabolic health issues and gut dysbiosis.

Restoring metabolic health is one of the major reasons why I created NOURISH Prebiotic Breakfast Drink Powder.

For weight loss programs, I combine Nourish with partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) to help my clients feed beneficial microorganisms and for appetite control.

I’ve included this customised recipe in a daily meal planning page – HEALTHY WEIGHT LOSS Daily Meal Plan.

Our Daily Meal Plan is a free download you can share with family and friends and inspire each other to live a healthy life.

We also have a Shopify store for mail orders if you want to purchase Nourish – and you don’t live locally.

Or come in and visit us at the clinic – or call us – we love connecting.

Shop Nourish



You need to eat protein foods because they contain amino acids that are the building blocks of your muscles, organs, bones, cartilage, skin, and hair.

Amino acids are also involved in making hormones (endocrine system), enzymes (metabolic energy and oxygenation) and antibodies (immune system).

Most adults need around 0.80g of protein per kilo of body weight per day.

You calculate your weight x .80 to work out how much protein you need.

So, if you weigh 70kg – calculate 70 x .80 = 56 grams of protein daily.

If you are pregnant, elderly, an athlete, highly active, or suffer from kidney disease, your protein needs will differ – so seek professional advice.

Sources of healthier proteins include:

Almond butter (organic) 1 tbsp (25g) ≃ 5 grams protein.

Amaranth: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 7 grams protein.

Asparagus, fresh: 1 cup cooked ≃ 4 grams protein.

Avocado: 1 medium-sized raw ≃ 3 grams protein.

Black beans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 11 grams protein.

Broccoli: ½ cup chopped and cooked ≃ 4 grams protein.

Butter beans (lima): ¼ cup boiled ≃ 9 grams protein.

Cannellini beans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 12 grams protein.

Chia seeds: 1 tbsp raw ≃ 2 grams protein.

Chickpeas: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 9 grams protein.

Coyo coconut yoghurt (Natural, with live cultures): ½ cup (125g) ≃ 1.6 grams protein.

Edamame (baby soybeans): ¼ cup boiled 8 grams protein.

Eggs (organic only): one medium egg (55g) ≃ 7 grams protein.

Green peas, fresh: ¼ cup (38g) raw or cooked ≃ 3 grams protein.

Hemp seeds (hulled): 1 tsp ≃ 2 grams protein.

Hummus (hommous): 1 tbsp (24g) ≃ 2 grams protein.

Kidney beans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 11 grams protein.

Lean meat (organic chicken): 100 grams chicken breast ≃ 24 grams protein.

Lean meat (wild caught fish, not farmed): 100 grams salmon ≃ 25 grams protein.

Lentils: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 12 grams protein.

Millet: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 6 grams protein.

Miso paste: 1 tbsp (24g) ≃ 3 grams protein.

Mushrooms (portobello, shiitake, maitake, lions mane, enoki): 80 gram serving ≃ 2 grams protein.

Oat bran (organic only): ¼ cup raw ≃ 4 grams protein.

Peanut butter (whole grain) 1 tbsp (25g) ≃ 6 grams protein.

Peas, fresh: ¼ cup (38g) raw or cooked ≃ 3 grams protein.

Pinto beans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 11 grams protein.

Pumpkin seeds (pepitas): ¼ cup raw ≃ 10 grams protein.

Quinoa: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 6 grams protein.

Soybeans: ¼ cup boiled ≃ 18 grams protein.

Soy milk (Bonsoy): 100mls ≃ 4 grams protein.

Spirulina (organic only): 1 metric tbsp (9g) ≃ 5 grams protein.

Tahini (organic): 1 tbsp (24g) ≃ 4 grams protein.

Tempeh: ½ cup (88g) ≃ 16 grams protein.

Tofu (firm): ½ cup (130g) ≃ 11 grams protein.

Walnuts: ¼ cup raw ≃ 4 grams protein.

Wild rice: ¼ cup (41g) boiled ≃ 6 grams protein.


If you eat animal protein, I recommend that you buy only organic meat and eggs to avoid antibiotics and chemicals used in conventional livestock farming and manufacturing processes.

Avoid eating any processed meats that contain artificial chemical ingredients – including synthetic preservatives, colours, flavours, and texturisers.

The worst processed meats you could eat include – sausages, salami, luncheon meats, deli meats, ham, hot dogs, frankfurters, saveloy sausages, cocktail sausages, chicken nuggets, bacon, canned meat, and commercially cured meats.

Always check processed meat ingredient labels – including plant-based and cultivated meat products.

To investigate synthetic ingredients, you can freely use the Environmental Working Group database.

Avoid growth hormones too, which are banned in animal farming in Australia, but it is worth checking if you live in other regions of the world.

For the health of your endocrine (hormone) system, it’s best to avoid all foods containing growth hormone factors, including animal milk products.

Mothers’ milk contains Insulin-like Growth Factor hormones (IGFs) that signal the rapid growth of their new-borns.

Hormones such as prolactin, oestrogen, androgens, progesterone, prostaglandin and corticoids are also found in animal milk.

Studies confirm a link between animal milk consumption and excess weight, early onset menarche (menstruation), acne, type 2 diabetes, prostate and breast cancer, lymphoma, and neurodegenerative diseases.

I recommend avoiding animal milk products and replacing them with organic, plant-based milks that are activated (pre-soaked).

If you make your own nut milk (especially almond milk), make sure you soak the nuts in pure water for 12 hours in the fridge.

Soaking nuts for twelve hours before making milk helps counteract nutrient inhibitors (anti-nutrients) that block digestive enzymes and mineral absorption.

Some studies have raised concerns about anti-nutrients in nuts, seeds, and vegetables that block the digestion and absorption of other nutrients.

What has also emerged in research is that high levels of beneficial intestinal flora in your gut helps you adjust to nutrient inhibitors – particularly the probiotic lactobacilli.

Boosting beneficial gut microflora, eating sprouted grains and seeds, and adding fermented foods to your daily diet counteract anti-nutrients.

I also invite you to look at the live-linked research we share in our references so you can make an informed decision about your consumption of animal dairy foods.


Healthy fats are also an essential part of healing and maintaining your health.

Healthy fats reduce the risk of heart disease, lower bad cholesterol (LDL) and boost good cholesterol (HDL), have a beneficial effect on blood pressure, stabilise heart rhythms, reduce inflammation, and help prevent cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

We need healthy fats for optimal gut and brain health, and to protect our eyesight too.

Healthy fats also help our bodies absorb essential antioxidants and fat-soluble vitamins – including vitamins A, D, E and K.


The healthy fats you should aim to eat are POLYUNSATURATED and MONOUNSATURATED fats, which are made up of fatty acids.

These fats are commonly known as omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids.

Fatty acids are the building blocks of the fat in our bodies – and play a vital role in energy production (metabolism) and the proper function of every cell.

POLYUNSATURATED FATS are the omega-3 and omega-6 fats.

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are both essential but in the correct ratios.

When omega-6 is too high in your diet (compared to omega-3), it can promote chronic inflammation, cell damage (oxidative stress), allergies, asthma, cardiovascular disease, cancers, plus inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

The best ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids is 4:1 – which means for every 1 gram of omega-3, we should eat 4 grams of omega-6 fat.

The problem with modern diets is that we eat up to 20 times the amount of omega-6 to omega-3 fats.

To improve the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats, eat more omega-3s.

Foods high in omega-3 fats include chia seeds, linseeds (flaxseeds), hemp seeds, walnuts, seaweed, algae, broccoli, spinach, mangoes, edamame beans, kidney beans, lettuce, brussels sprouts, organic free-range eggs, wild-caught fatty fish including salmon and sardines, flaxseed oil, and algae (algal) oil.

Avoid over-consumption of foods high in omega-6s, including safflower, sunflower, grapeseed, corn and peanut oils, mayonnaise, commercial salad dressings, and highly processed foods.

My advice is – always check the nutrition panel on food labels.

MONOUNSATURATED FATS are the omega-9 fatty acids.

Omega-9 fats are found in foods such as olives and cold-pressed olive oil (oleic acid), avocado oil, almond oil, sesame oil, raw almonds, cashew nuts, and seeds.

Omega-9s alleviate insulin resistance and fat metabolism dysfunction, reduce bad cholesterol in the blood (LDL) and increase good cholesterol (HDL), improve insulin sensitivity, and decrease inflammation.

GOOD SOURCES OF OMEGA OILS you can easily add to your smoothies and dressings include:

Algae (algal) oil.

Flaxseed oil.

Hemp seed oil.

MCT coconut oil (medium-chain triglycerides).

Olive oil – organic cold-pressed.

Pumpkin seed oil.

Sesame seed oil.

Walnut oil.

You can also eat avocado, black olives, hemp seeds, raw nuts, and seeds for a good boost of healthy omega fats.


The amount of healthy fats we should eat daily is argued, and calculations can be complex.

The daily recommendation is that you should eat half to one gram of healthy fat per kilogram you weigh to avoid essential fatty acid deficiency.

It becomes complex because different oils and foods have different levels of fats.

To make it easier for my clients, I generally recommend 30ml of healthy oils and a handful of nuts and seeds every day to ensure optimum fatty acid nutrition for typical adults.

30mls equals 6 Australian metric teaspoons.

A metabolic-boosting way to add healthy oils to your diet is to eat them with fibre-rich foods in smoothies or salads or poured over baked vegetables.

You can also add healthy, fat-rich foods to your recipes – such as avocadoes, black olives, hummus, tahini, and pine nuts.

Or, for a brain-boosting afternoon snack, eat a handful of raw walnuts and Brazil nuts or pumpkin seeds (pepitas).

I’ll keep sharing recipes that include healthy fats in my blogs.

Plus – our Healthy Eating Directory provides links to amazing chefs and delicious recipes to inspire you.


*Limit Saturated Animal Fats because they are associated with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, glaucoma, gallbladder disease, and bowel cancer.

*Avoid Trans Fats because they are considered unsafe for human health. There is no safe limit you can eat.

Trans fats are artificial fats created from hydrogenated liquid oils.

Manufactured trans fats are commonly found in highly processed foods, margarine, deep-fried foods, biscuits, cakes, pastries, desserts, takeaway foods, hamburgers, pizza, and hot chips (fries).

Always check the ingredients in the foods you buy.

Trans fats are listed on food labels as hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils.


Probiotics help your body maintain a healthy population of beneficial gut microorganisms for optimal metabolic and immune health.

The quantity and diversity of beneficial gut microorganisms in your gut control your state of health.

Your body’s ability to function depends on the interaction and cooperation between trillions of microorganisms, and they need to be nurtured and properly fed or they starve to death.

Aim to eat a range of probiotics with every meal or two servings daily.

Probiotic Foods include:

• Cultured (live) organic yoghurt – unsweetened, free of additives and flavouring.

• Cultured organic Greek yoghurt – unsweetened, free of additives and flavouring.

• Cultured organic coconut yoghurt – unsweetened, free of additives and flavouring.

• Kefir – a cultured, fermented milk drink.

• Kombucha – a slightly fizzy drink made from fermented black tea.

• Kvass – a fermented drink made from rye, berries, herbs and honey.

• Tepache – made from the peel and the rind of pineapples and cinnamon.

• Kimchi – a spicy, traditional Korean sauerkraut made from fermented vegetables.

• Natto – a traditional Japanese dish made from fermented soybeans.

• Miso – fermented soybean paste used as seasoning and making soup.

• Tempeh – a traditional Indonesian food made from fermented soybeans.

• Sauerkraut –fermented, finely sliced cabbage with a salty and sour flavour.

• Fresh organic green peas.

• Fermented pickled vegetables.

• Organic or biodynamic (only) apples are abundant in beneficial bacteria.

• Organic apple cider vinegar with the mother.

• Organic, aged Gouda cheese for those that eat animal dairy products.

• Organic Paneer – a raw Indian cheese is also rich in probiotics.


I use probiotic supplements for restoring gut and immune imbalances.

BUT – there are many bacteria strains used in different probiotic formulas.

It’s best to seek practitioner advice to match the right probiotic supplement for your health issues.

Herbs & Spice that promote healthy weight loss.


I was blessed to be raised in a family where herbs and spice were a part of every meal – to add deliciousness to recipes and protect our health.

Herbs and spices contain the highest levels of healing antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds of all foods.

They can also promote weight loss too by aiding digestion, reducing inflammation, fighting infections, nourishing your gut microbiome, curbing appetite and cravings, preventing insulin resistance, and boosting fat metabolism.

Add organic herbs and spices generously to all your recipes – fresh and dried – to boost your metabolism, nourish your gut microbiome, and protect your immune system too.


Aleppo pepper.

Basil seeds.

Black cumin seeds (nigella sativa).

Black pepper, cracked.




Cinnamon (Ceylon only).









Healthy Weight Loss apple cider vinegar page divider


Apple cider vinegar has prebiotic properties that promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria, aid digestion, reduce body weight, and boost fatty acid oxidation, which decreases body fat and increases lean muscle.

An intake of 15ml of apple cider vinegar (750mg AcOH) per day is enough to achieve these effects without causing adverse effects.

After eating your evening meal, drink 15ml of organic apple cider vinegar (with the mother) in 50ml of pure or distilled drinking water.

Make sure you rinse your mouth out after consuming vinegar because the acetic acid in vinegar can affect tooth enamel.

Use pure monk fruit extract for healthy weight loss.


Whether you want to heal your health or lose excess weight, ditch all artificial (synthetic) sweeteners and refined sugar – especially ‘hidden sugar’ used in manufacturing processed foods.


Studies reveal that artificial sweeteners – including plant-based sugar alcohols – undermine your gut microbiome and can cause metabolic imbalances.

Side effects from consuming artificial sugar substitutes can include digestive symptoms, bloating, gut bacteria imbalances (dysbiosis), metabolic syndrome, glucose intolerance, weight gain, and increased risks of several cancers.

Artificial sweeteners to ditch include saccharin (Sweet‘n’Low), acesulfame, aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet), neotame, and sucralose (Splenda).

Sugar alcohols (polyols) to ditch include sorbitol, mannitol, erythritol, xylitol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt.

Check food labels and avoid them – they are widely used in diet and sugar-free products.


Excessive consumption of refined sugar and hidden sugar in processed foods (especially corn syrup) contributes to:

• cancers.

• candida (yeast overgrowth).

• cell ageing.

• cognitive decline.

• dementia.

• depression and mood disorders.

• diabetes.

• fatty liver disease.

• gout.

• gut bacteria imbalance (dysbiosis).  

• heart disease.

• high levels of uric acid in your blood.

• immune dysfunction.

• inflammation and joint pain. 

• leaky gut. 

• metabolic syndrome.  

• neuroinflammation (brain and nerves).

• obesity, and

• tooth decay.


I personally use ‘pure’ monk fruit extract for sweetening – because it has a prebiotic action and a zero glycaemic index score.

Monk fruit is used in Chinese Herbal Medicine as a natural sweetener and to improve:

• constipation.

• depression.

• gut, kidney, and heart health.

• inflammation.

• insomnia.

• lung congestion.

• scrofula, and

• to promote longevity.

When you buy monk fruit, make sure to check the product label.

Some monk fruit sweetening products have a small percentage of monk fruit combined with erythritol.

Don’t be fooled by packaging. Only buy pure 100% monk fruit powder or liquid.

Other natural sweeteners that support a healthy gut microbiome include:

• organic dates.

• pure raw honey.

• unsulphured blackstrap molasses.

• coconut sugar.

• pure organic 100% maple syrup.

If you’re really craving something sweet – eat a line of organic dark chocolate or a Medjool date.

And if you’re prone to craving sweet foods, it could be because of mineral deficiencies.

Talk to your naturopath about a mineral supplement formulated with chromium, magnesium and zinc for blood sugar support.

I go further into the health effects of artificial sweeteners, sugar consumption, and monk fruit in my blog, PURE Monk Fruit Sweetener Benefits.

I would love you to share this blog widely so that together, we can help people everywhere heal the suffering artificial sweeteners and excessive sugar consumption cause.

Water is vital for healthy weight loss.


Dehydration is a common health issue.

Many people are not drinking enough water to maintain good health.

Your body is approximately 66% water.

You need pure water to replace fluids lost in all the metabolic processes that keep you alive.

Water also helps remove metabolic wastes from your body through sweat, exhalation (breathing out), urine, and bowel movements.

If you don’t drink enough water, you become dehydrated.

Symptoms of dehydration include feeling tired, brain fog, headaches, smelly urine, dark urine, and constipation.

Studies also reveal that dehydration is linked to weight gain, metabolic dysfunction, and increased disease risk.

Increased water intake is associated with weight loss, decreased hunger, increased fat burning, and improved metabolic health.


We all need to drink pure water.

Don’t drink sugar-laden and carbonated drinks (fizzy drinks, pop). They don’t count when it comes to keeping your body well-hydrated.

Synthetically sweetened diet drinks are even worse – especially for your gut microbiome.

Ditch these junk food drinks and switch to pure hydrating water.

Fruit juices are too high in concentrated sugars.

And coffee dehydrates your body – so keep that in mind when calculating your fluid intake, and drink no more than 2 cups of coffee a day – preferably before 3pm so it doesn’t interfere with sleep.

If pure water isn’t your favourite drink, there’s always a solution.

You can drink hot or cold herbal teas – and sweeten them with pure monk fruit extract.

You can also add a squeeze of lemon or lime juice or 50ml of cold-pressed organic pomegranate juice to your water bottle.

Fresh spearmint leaves in your water bottle are wonderfully refreshing.

Spearmint tea helps you burn fat too.


Optimum hydration depends on your level of activity and even the climate you live in.

If you’re exercising and sweating, you’re an athlete, or you live in a hot climate, you need to replace the fluids you lose more frequently.

On average, though, adults should aim to drink two litres of pure water daily – especially when you increase fibre in your diet.

Take a water bottle with you wherever you go.

And to stop you from feeling bloated, sip water throughout the day rather than guzzling down glasses of it at a time.

Herbal teas for health weight loss.


Herbs provide many health-promoting properties, including boosting metabolic health, reducing inflammation, improving digestion and absorption of nutrients, and boosting gut health and immune function.

Herbs are one of my passions because they can help us heal and live a healthier life.

You can easily include a variety of organic herbal teas in your daily fluid intake to help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight. 

Enjoy a cuppa – or two or three – daily.

Ginger root – digestive tea, anti-inflammatory, alleviates nausea.

Green tea – speeds up metabolic processes.

Hibiscus – anti-obesity effects, improves fat digestion.

Lemon Balm – inhibits obesity and insulin resistance.

Matcha – anti-inflammatory, increases thermogenesis (calorie burning).

Pu’errh – digestive tea, reduces body fat, improves lipid profile.

Spearmint (Mentha spicata)- aids digestive disorders, anti-obesity action.

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) aids insulin resistance, fat-blocking abilities.

Intermittent fasting works for weight loss because it helps reset your fat, glucose, hormone, and protein metabolism.


Intermittent fasting works because it helps reset your fat, glucose, hormone, and protein metabolism.

Fasting involves restricting the intake of solid foods.

Intermittent fasting for weight loss switches between short periods of fasting for usually 16 hours and eating healthy meals for 8 hours within each 24 hours.

When you starve your body for long periods without food, your metabolism slows down.

However, studies have shown that fasting for short periods can enhance your metabolism.

You can fast from 12 to 48 hours without your metabolism switching to starvation mode.

My advice is to fit your fasting hours into your routine, particularly if you’re raising children and accommodating family needs or working rotating shifts.

I’ve found that a twelve-hour fasting period is more sustainable for many of my clients.

On average, a 12-hour fast from 7 pm to 7 am works, with eight hours of sleep from 10 pm to 6 am.

You can adjust your fasting clock to fit your life as long as you:

• Fast for a minimum of 12 hours a day.

• Eat your first meal of solid food one hour after waking. 

• Eat your last meal ideally 3 hours before sleeping.

• Aim to get 8 hours of sleep a night for proper rest and repair.


Meal planning is ideal for the busy lives we live and reduces stress about what to eat.

Meal planning can also help you achieve your weight loss goals because you organise what you are going to eat and the portions served.

You can also prep meals ahead to save time and make life easier.

Plan your meals around your fasting hours.

I recommend breaking your fast with a high-fibre meal to nourish beneficial gut microorganisms and feel full for longer.

As you plan your meals, your attitude matters.

Instead of ‘dieting’ to lose excess weight – be an explorer and go on a journey of discovery.

Learn all you can about nutrition and how delicious healthy foods can be.

I always advise my clients to never go ‘on’ a diet but embrace a lifestyle that promotes health and healing.

Your lifestyle includes what you eat.

Everything you consume is either nurturing or undermining your health.

That’s the outcome of every meal we eat.

We all need to choose wisely and eat with awareness.


You can save and print our HEALTHY WEIGHT LOSS Daily Meal Plan.

I have even included high-fibre and healthier protein food lists to help your meal planning.


Another great resource for meal planning is the Check Your Food nutrition calculator.

Once you get to know what’s in the food you eat, meal planning becomes routine.

You can also check out our Healthy Eating Directory for healthy recipe ideas

And – if you want to make meal planning even easier, check out Meal Plans by Rainbow Plant Life.

Nisha from Rainbow Plant Life takes all the planning and guesswork out of meals for you.

Nisha’s recipes are plant-based, and each week you get a PDF sent straight to your inbox that contains:

• a categorized grocery list complete with substitutions.

• a quick but impactful set of meal prep steps that will streamline your weeknight dinners.

• and gourmet but doable recipes.

Exercise is essential in any weight loss program. Many of our organ functions, including metabolism, rely on movement for optimum performance.


Your body is not designed to be inactive (sedentary).

Many of our organ functions, including metabolism, rely on movement for optimum performance.

Studies show that exercise can improve insulin resistance and your ability to burn fat.

Daily physical activity reduces adipose (fat) tissue, improves metabolic and mental health, and even promotes better bowel movement.

People who don’t exercise have a higher risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart and bowel disease, anxiety, depression, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and other chronic diseases, including cancers.

All types of physical activity and exercise are beneficial, including high-intensity interval training (HIIT), aerobic exercise, running, walking, swimming, dancing, gardening, playing sports, weight training, pilates, and yoga.

Include friends and family in your fitness goals to keep you motivated and each other healthy.

Try to be physically active every day for at least half an hour.

If you’re a busy parent, include your children and teach them that exercise is an invaluable health skill for the whole family.

If your budget is a factor that limits your choices, there are free exercise and yoga classes on YouTube.

And walking vigorously or running costs nothing except time and a determined commitment to your well-being.

Make time to move your body every day.

You’ll learn to love what you can achieve as you improve your fitness and reenergise.

Stay inspired!

Have Fun!


Everything we eat and drink has an action and a reaction.

Coming up next in my blogs, I want to share delicious recipes with ingredients that bring health and energy back to life.

Food is universal and our common ground.

We all need to eat.

It’s what we eat that makes the difference!

All the very best,

Lisa Rieniets ND

Shop Nourish


We include live-linked references in our blogs so you can explore studies about human health and nutrition.

The more you learn, the more empowered you become.

Your body is designed to be healthy – especially when you know what it needs to function at its best.

And you do it!

Aleman RS, Moncada M, Aryana KJ. Leaky Gut and the Ingredients That Help Treat It: A Review. Molecules. 2023 Jan 7;28(2):619. doi: 10.3390/molecules28020619. PMID: 36677677; PMCID: PMC9862683. (Probiotics, Fibre and Short-Chain Fatty Acids)

Ali, A.; Ahmadi, F.; Cottrell, J.J.; Dunshea, F.R. Comprehensive Metabolite Fingerprinting of Australian Black and Green Olives and Their Antioxidant and Pharmacokinetics Properties. Separations 2023, 10, 354. (Why black olives)

Ali-Shtayeh MS, Jamous RM, Abu-Zaitoun SY, Khasati AI, Kalbouneh SR. Biological Properties and Bioactive Components of Mentha spicata L. Essential Oil: Focus on Potential Benefits in the Treatment of Obesity, Alzheimer’s Disease, Dermatophytosis, and Drug-Resistant Infections. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Oct 20;2019:3834265. doi: 10.1155/2019/3834265. PMID: 31772594; PMCID: PMC6854165. (Spearmint – anti-obesity)

Alshahrani SM, Mashat RM, Almutairi D, Mathkour A, Alqahtani SS, Alasmari A, Alzahrani AH, Ayed R, Asiri MY, Elsherif A, et al. The Effect of Walnut Intake on Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2022; 14(21):4460. (Walnuts)

Alsharif F., Almuhtadi Y. The Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Anthropometric Measures among Overweight or Obese Adults. Nutrients. 2021;13:680. doi: 10.3390/nu13020680. (Curcumin/turmeric)

Andersen CJ. Lipid Metabolism in Inflammation and Immune Function. Nutrients. 2022 Mar 28;14(7):1414. doi: 10.3390/nu14071414. PMID: 35406026; PMCID: PMC9002396. (Fat metabolism & Inflammation)

Aoun A, Darwish F, Hamod N. The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Obesity in Adults and the Role of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for Weight Loss. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2020 Jun 30;25(2):113-123. doi: 10.3746/pnf.2020.25.2.113. PMID: 32676461; PMCID: PMC7333005. (Gut Microbiome & weight)

Arora T, Rudenko O, Egerod KL, Husted AS, Kovatcheva-Datchary P, Akrami R, Kristensen M, Schwartz TW, Bäckhed F. Microbial fermentation of flaxseed fibers modulates the transcriptome of GPR41-expressing enteroendocrine cells and protects mice against diet-induced obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Mar 1;316(3):E453-E463. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00391.2018. Epub 2018 Dec 18. PMID: 30562060. (Linseed/Flaxseed)

Ayimbila F, Keawsompong S. Nutritional Quality and Biological Application of Mushroom Protein as a Novel Protein Alternative. Curr Nutr Rep. 2023 Jun;12(2):290-307. doi: 10.1007/s13668-023-00468-x. Epub 2023 Apr 10. PMID: 37032416; PMCID: PMC10088739. (Mushrooms)

Barber TM, Kabisch S, Pfeiffer AFH, Weickert MO. The Health Benefits of Dietary Fibre. Nutrients. 2020 Oct 21;12(10):3209. doi: 10.3390/nu12103209. PMID: 33096647; PMCID: PMC7589116. (Fibre benefits, disease, weight loss, microflora, insulin sensitivity)

Bellastella G, Scappaticcio L, Caiazzo F, Tomasuolo M, Carotenuto R, Caputo M, Arena S, Caruso P, Maiorino MI, Esposito K. Mediterranean Diet and Thyroid: An Interesting Alliance. Nutrients. 2022; 14(19):4130. (Thyroid Nutrition)

Boas M, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Main KM. Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012 May 22;355(2):240-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2011.09.005. Epub 2011 Sep 10. PMID: 21939731. (Thyroid disrupting chemicals)

Booth FW, Roberts CK, Laye MJ. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Compr Physiol. 2012 Apr;2(2):1143-211. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c110025. PMID: 23798298; PMCID: PMC4241367. (Exercise and disease)

Boutcher SH. High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. J Obes. 2011;2011:868305. doi: 10.1155/2011/868305. Epub 2010 Nov 24. PMID: 21113312; PMCID: PMC2991639. (HIIT exercise for fat loss)

Brown K, DeCoffe D, Molcan E, Gibson DL. Diet-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and the effects on immunity and disease. Nutrients. 2012 Aug;4(8):1095-119. doi: 10.3390/nu4081095. Epub 2012 Aug 21. Erratum in: Nutrients. 2012 Oct;4(11)1552-3. PMID: 23016134; PMCID: PMC3448089. (Gut dysbiosis and systemic inflammation)

Calsolaro V, Pasqualetti G, Niccolai F, Caraccio N, Monzani F. Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Dec 1;18(12):2583. doi: 10.3390/ijms18122583. PMID: 29194390; PMCID: PMC5751186. (Thyroid & Chemicals)

Cassani, R.S.L., Fassini, P.G., Silvah, J.H. et al. Impact of weight loss diet associated with flaxseed on inflammatory markers in men with cardiovascular risk factors: a clinical study. Nutr J 14, 5 (2015). (Linseed/Flaxseed)

Chen M, Chen X, Wang K, Cai L, Liu N, Zhou D, Jia W, Gong P, Liu N, Sun Y. Effects of kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) polysaccharides on metabolites and gut microbiota of acrylamide-induced mice. Front Nutr. 2023 Feb 6;10:1080825. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2023.1080825. PMID: 36814509; PMCID: PMC9939636. (Kiwi fruit)

Clamp LD, Hume DJ, Lambert EV, Kroff J. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in successful, long-term weight loss maintainers compared with matched controls with no weight loss history. Nutr Diabetes. 2017 Jun 19;7(6):e282. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2017.31. PMID: 28628125; PMCID: PMC5519190. (Insulin resistance)

Dahl SM, Rolfe V, Walton GE, Gibson GR. Gut microbial modulation by culinary herbs and spices. Food Chem. 2023 May 30;409:135286. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.135286. Epub 2022 Dec 23. PMID: 36599291. (Herbs & Spice – metabolic health)

Deekshith, Chandana; Jois, Markandeya; Radcliffe, Jessica; Thomas, Jency (2021). Effects of culinary herbs and spices on obesity: a systematic literature review of clinical trials. La Trobe. Journal contribution. herbs for weight loss)

de Oliveira GLV, Cardoso CRB, Taneja V, Fasano A. Editorial: Intestinal Dysbiosis in Inflammatory Diseases. Front Immunol. 2021 Jul 30;12:727485. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.727485. PMID: 34394133; PMCID: PMC8362080. (Gut Dysbiosis & inflammation)

Derrick SA, Kristo AS, Reaves SK, Sikalidis AK. Effects of Dietary Red Raspberry Consumption on Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Parameters. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Sep 4;18(17):9364. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18179364. PMID: 34501954; PMCID: PMC8431376. (Raspberries)

Dillard, C.J. and German, J.B. (2000), Phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health. J. Sci. Food Agric., 80: 1744-1756.<1744::AID-JSFA725>3.0.CO;2-W (Phytonutrients)

DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe J. The Importance of Maintaining a Low Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio for Reducing the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases, Asthma, and Allergies. Mo Med. 2021 Sep-Oct;118(5):453-459. PMID: 34658440; PMCID: PMC8504498. (Omega fat ratios)

El-Elimat, T., Qasem, W.M., Al-Sawalha, N.A. et al. A Prospective Non-Randomized Open-Label Comparative Study of The Effects of Matcha Tea on Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Pilot Observational Study. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 77, 447–454 (2022). (Matcha – calorie burning)

El-Zayat, S.R., Sibaii, H. & El-Shamy, K.A. Physiological process of fat loss. Bull Natl Res Cent 43, 208 (2019). (Fat Burning)

Escobedo-Moratilla, A. , Velarde-Salcedo, A. J. , Magaña-Hernández, C. V. , Barrera-Pacheco, A. , Espitia-Rangel, E. , Herrera-Estrella, A. , & Rosa, A. P. B. D. L. (2017). Amaranth Protein Improves Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in a Diet-induced Obese Mice Model. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 5(12), 914-924. (Amaranth)

Esposito D, Damsud T, Wilson M, Grace MH, Strauch R, Li X, Lila MA, Komarnytsky S. Black Currant Anthocyanins Attenuate Weight Gain and Improve Glucose Metabolism in Diet-Induced Obese Mice with Intact, but Not Disrupted, Gut Microbiome. J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Jul 15;63(27):6172-80. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b00963. Epub 2015 Jun 28. PMID: 26066489. (Blackcurrants)

Fadnes LT, Økland J-M, Haaland ØA, Johansson KA (2022) Estimating impact of food choices on life expectancy: A modeling study. PLoS Med 19(2): e1003889. (Food choices & life expectancy)

Famularo G, De Simone C, Pandey V, Sahu AR, Minisola G. Probiotic lactobacilli: an innovative tool to correct the malabsorption syndrome of vegetarians? Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(6):1132-5. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2004.09.030. Epub 2005 Aug 10. PMID: 16095846. (Probiotics counteract anti-nutrients)

Farag MA, Gad MZ. Omega-9 fatty acids: potential roles in inflammation and cancer management. J Genet Eng Biotechnol. 2022 Mar 16;20(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s43141-022-00329-0. PMID: 35294666; PMCID: PMC8927560. (Omega-9 fatty acids)

Fern EB, Watzke H, Barclay DV, Roulin A, Drewnowski A. The Nutrient Balance Concept: A New Quality Metric for Composite Meals and Diets. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 15;10(7):e0130491. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130491. PMID: 26176770; PMCID: PMC4503684. (Nutrient balance)

Ferreira H, Vasconcelos M, Gil AM, Pinto E. Benefits of pulse consumption on metabolism and health: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021;61(1):85-96. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1716680. Epub 2020 Jan 25. PMID: 31983216. (Beans boost metabolism)

Finucane OM, Lyons CL, Murphy AM, Reynolds CM, Klinger R, Healy NP, Cooke AA, Coll RC, McAllan L, Nilaweera KN, O’Reilly ME, Tierney AC, Morine MJ, Alcala-Diaz JF, Lopez-Miranda J, O’Connor DP, O’Neill LA, McGillicuddy FC, Roche HM. Monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched high-fat diets impede adipose NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion and insulin resistance despite obesity. Diabetes. 2015 Jun;64(6):2116-28. doi: 10.2337/db14-1098. Epub 2015 Jan 27. PMID: 25626736. (Monounsaturated fats reduce inflammation)

Ganesan K, Xu B. Anti-Obesity Effects of Medicinal and Edible Mushrooms. Molecules. 2018 Nov 5;23(11):2880. doi: 10.3390/molecules23112880. PMID: 30400600; PMCID: PMC6278646. (Anti-obesity affect Mushrooms)

Gibson AA, Sainsbury A. Strategies to Improve Adherence to Dietary Weight Loss Interventions in Research and Real-World Settings. Behav Sci (Basel). 2017 Jul 11;7(3):44. doi: 10.3390/bs7030044. PMID: 28696389; PMCID: PMC5618052. (Dietary adherence)

Guo H, Ling W, Wang Q, Liu C, Hu Y, Xia M, Feng X, Xia X. Effect of anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007 Mar;62(1):1-6. doi: 10.1007/s11130-006-0031-7. Epub 2006 Dec 23. PMID: 17187297. (Black rice for insulin resistance)

Harvey CJDC, Schofield GM, Williden M. The use of nutritional supplements to induce ketosis and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction: a narrative review. PeerJ. 2018 Mar 16;6:e4488. doi: 10.7717/peerj.4488. PMID: 29576959; PMCID: PMC5858534. (Vinegar & MCT oil)

Hildebrandt, X., Ibrahim, M. & Peltzer, N. Cell death and inflammation during obesity: “Know my methods, WAT(son)”. Cell Death Differ 30, 279–292 (2023). (Inflammation & weight)

Huang F, Wang S, Zhao A, Zheng X, Zhang Y, Lei S, Ge K, Qu C, Zhao Q, Yan C, Jia W. Pu-erh Tea Regulates Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mice Under High-Fat Diet. Front Pharmacol. 2019 Feb 5;10:63. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00063. PMID: 30804786; PMCID: PMC6370627. (Puerrh for fat metabolism)

Ioniță-Mîndrican CB, Ziani K, Mititelu M, Oprea E, Neacșu SM, Moroșan E, Dumitrescu DE, Roșca AC, Drăgănescu D, Negrei C. Therapeutic Benefits and Dietary Restrictions of Fiber Intake: A State of the Art Review. Nutrients. 2022 Jun 26;14(13):2641. doi: 10.3390/nu14132641. PMID: 35807822; PMCID: PMC9268622. (Soluble fibre blocks fat and slows sugar absorption)

Jensen GS, Beaman JL, He Y, Guo Z, Sun H. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Interv Aging. 2016 Mar 24;11:367-76. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S94881. PMID: 27069360; PMCID: PMC4818050. (Puerrh – reduces body fat)

Jiang TA. Health Benefits of Culinary Herbs and Spices. J AOAC Int. 2019 Mar 1;102(2):395-411. doi: 10.5740/jaoacint.18-0418. Epub 2019 Jan 16. PMID: 30651162. (Health benefits herbs & spice)

Juturu, V., Sahin, K., Orhan, C., Tuzcu, M. and Sahin, N. (2017), Ingested Walnut Oil Can Prevent Low-Fat/High-Carbohydrate diet and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Modulating Metabolic Health Markers and Regulating the Expression of Genes for Metabolism. The FASEB Journal, 31: 646.17-646.17. (Walnut oil)

Kalaivani A, Sathibabu Uddandrao VV, Brahmanaidu P, Saravanan G, Nivedha PR, Tamilmani P, Swapna K, Vadivukkarasi S. Anti obese potential of Cucurbita maxima seeds oil: effect on lipid profile and histoarchitecture in high fat diet induced obese rats. Nat Prod Res. 2018 Dec;32(24):2950-2953. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1389939. Epub 2017 Oct 19. PMID: 29047298. (Pumpkin seed oil)

Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Egan KM, Faberowski N, Hankinson SE. Dietary fat consumption and primary open-angle glaucoma. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;79(5):755-64. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/79.5.755. PMID: 15113712. (Glaucoma and fats)

Kaur N, Chugh V, Gupta AK. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Oct;51(10):2289-303. doi: 10.1007/s13197-012-0677-0. Epub 2012 Mar 21. PMID: 25328170; PMCID: PMC4190204. (Essential fatty acids)

Kelly OJ, Gilman JC, Ilich JZ. Utilizing Dietary Nutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research: Expanding the Concept of Nutrient Ratios to Macronutrients. Nutrients. 2019 Jan 28;11(2):282. doi: 10.3390/nu11020282. PMID: 30696021; PMCID: PMC6413020. (Dietary Nutrient Ratios)

Khanna D, Khanna S, Khanna P, Kahar P, Patel BM. Obesity: A Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Its Markers. Cureus. 2022 Feb 28;14(2):e22711. doi: 10.7759/cureus.22711. PMID: 35386146; PMCID: PMC8967417. (Inflammation & weight)

Kiani AK, Dhuli K, Donato K, Aquilanti B, Velluti V, Matera G, Iaconelli A, Connelly ST, Bellinato F, Gisondi P, Bertelli M. Main nutritional deficiencies. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022 Oct 17;63(2 Suppl 3):E93-E101. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2752. PMID: 36479498; PMCID: PMC9710417. (Nutrient deficiencies)

Kumar A, P N, Kumar M, Jose A, Tomer V, Oz E, Proestos C, Zeng M, Elobeid T, K S, Oz F. Major Phytochemicals: Recent Advances in Health Benefits and Extraction Method. Molecules. 2023 Jan 16;28(2):887. doi: 10.3390/molecules28020887. PMID: 36677944; PMCID: PMC9862941. (Phytonutrients)

Kumar, V., Sinha, A.K., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (2010) Dietary Roles of Phytate and Phytase in Human Nutrition: A Review. Food Chemistry, 120, 945-959. (Counteracting anti-nutrients)

Lattimer JM, Haub MD. Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health. Nutrients. 2010 Dec;2(12):1266-89. doi: 10.3390/nu2121266. Epub 2010 Dec 15. PMID: 22254008; PMCID: PMC3257631. (Fibre, weight loss and diabetes)

Lee D, Shin Y, Roh JS, Ahn J, Jeoong S, Shin SS, Yoon M. Lemon Balm Extract ALS-L1023 Regulates Obesity and Improves Insulin Sensitivity via Activation of Hepatic PPARα in High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese C57BL/6J Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 15;21(12):4256. doi: 10.3390/ijms21124256. PMID: 32549364; PMCID: PMC7352304. (Lemon balm – insulin resistance)

Leeuwendaal NK, Stanton C, O’Toole PW, Beresford TP. Fermented Foods, Health and the Gut Microbiome. Nutrients. 2022 Apr 6;14(7):1527. doi: 10.3390/nu14071527. PMID: 35406140; PMCID: PMC9003261. (Fermented foods)

Li B, Tang X, Le G. Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health. Nutrients. 2023 Sep 14;15(18):3975. doi: 10.3390/nu15183975. PMID: 37764759; PMCID: PMC10536179. (Metabolic health)

Lipski, Elizabeth. Digestive Wellness: Strengthen the Immune System and Prevent Disease Through Healthy Digestion 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, 20122012, and 5th edition 126001939X · 9781260019391. (Book: Digestive Wellness)

Liu D, Shi Q, Liu C, Sun Q, Zeng X. Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Heavy Metals on Human Health. Toxics. 2023 Mar 29;11(4):322. doi: 10.3390/toxics11040322. PMID: 37112549; PMCID: PMC10147072. (Heavy metals disrupt hormones)

Liu, Dong & Ji, Yanglin & Zhao, Jiang & Wang, Huali & Guo, Yatu & Hao, Wang. (2019). Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) reduces obesity and improves lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. Journal of Functional Foods. 64. 103605. 10.1016/j.jff.2019.103605. (Black rice for obesity)

Malekinejad H, Rezabakhsh A. Hormones in Dairy Foods and Their Impact on Public Health – A Narrative Review Article. Iran J Public Health. 2015 Jun;44(6):742-58. PMID: 26258087; PMCID: PMC4524299.(Hormones in animal milk)

Manikandan, A. & Raman, M. & Johnson, B. & Eagappan, K.. (2014). Dietary fiber isolate from coconut flakes – A functional food. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 25. 262-267. (Coconut Fibre)

Marcinek K, Krejpcio Z. Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica): health promoting properties and therapeutic applications – a review. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2017;68(2):123-129. PMID: 28646829. (Chia seeds)

Maruyama K, Oshima T, Ohyama K. Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows. Pediatr Int. 2010 Feb;52(1):33-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.02890.x. Epub 2009 May 22. PMID: 19496976. (Animal milk & hormones)

McTiernan A, Friedenreich CM, Katzmarzyk PT, Powell KE, Macko R, Buchner D, Pescatello LS, Bloodgood B, Tennant B, Vaux-Bjerke A, George SM, Troiano RP, Piercy KL; 2018 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY GUIDELINES ADVISORY COMMITTEE*. Physical Activity in Cancer Prevention and Survival: A Systematic Review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019 Jun;51(6):1252-1261. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001937. PMID: 31095082; PMCID: PMC6527123. (Exercise and cancer)

Medina-Urrutia AX, Jorge-Galarza E, El Hafidi M, Reyes-Barrera J, Páez-Arenas A, Masso-Rojas FA, Martínez-Sánchez FD, López-Uribe ÁR, González-Salazar MDC, Torres-Tamayo M, Juárez-Rojas JG. Effect of dietary chia supplementation on glucose metabolism and adipose tissue function markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects. Nutr Hosp. 2022 Dec 20;39(6):1280-1288. English. doi: 10.20960/nh.04084. PMID: 36250773. (Chia seeds)

Melnik BC. Lifetime Impact of Cow’s Milk on Overactivation of mTORC1: From Fetal to Childhood Overgrowth, Acne, Diabetes, Cancers, and Neurodegeneration. Biomolecules. 2021 Mar 9;11(3):404. doi: 10.3390/biom11030404. PMID: 33803410; PMCID: PMC8000710. (Animal milk impact)

Mika A, Macaluso F, Barone R, Di Felice V, Sledzinski T. Effect of Exercise on Fatty Acid Metabolism and Adipokine Secretion in Adipose Tissue. Front Physiol. 2019 Jan 28;10:26. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00026. PMID: 30745881; PMCID: PMC6360148. (Exercise and metabolism)

Miketinas DC, Bray GA, Beyl RA, Ryan DH, Sacks FM, Champagne CM. Fiber Intake Predicts Weight Loss and Dietary Adherence in Adults Consuming Calorie-Restricted Diets: The POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) Study. J Nutr. 2019 Oct 1;149(10):1742-1748. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz117. PMID: 31174214; PMCID: PMC6768815.(Fibre promotes weight loss)

Modi M, Modi K. Ginger Root. [Updated 2022 Nov 28]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-. Available from: (Ginger root tea)

Mohammed F, Sibley P, Abdulwali N, Guillaume D. Nutritional, pharmacological, and sensory properties of maple syrup: A comprehensive review. Heliyon. 2023 Aug 21;9(9):e19216. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e19216. PMID: 37662821; PMCID: PMC10469071. (Maple Syrup Benefits)

Monjotin N, Amiot MJ, Fleurentin J, Morel JM, Raynal S. Clinical Evidence of the Benefits of Phytonutrients in Human Healthcare. Nutrients. 2022 Apr 20;14(9):1712. doi: 10.3390/nu14091712. PMID: 35565680; PMCID: PMC9102588. (Phytonutrients for health)

Mousa WK, Chehadeh F, Husband S. Microbial dysbiosis in the gut drives systemic autoimmune diseases. Front Immunol. 2022 Oct 20;13:906258. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.906258. PMID: 36341463; PMCID: PMC9632986. (Gut Dysbiosis & inflammation)

Neacsu, M., Vaughan, N.J., Multari, S. et al. Hemp and buckwheat are valuable sources of dietary amino acids, beneficially modulating gastrointestinal hormones and promoting satiety in healthy volunteers. Eur J Nutr 61, 1057–1072 (2022). (Hemp & Buckwheat)

Nutrients Journal, A section of Nutrients Journal (ISSN 2072-6643). Phytochemicals and Human Health. (Phytonutrients studies) 

Obanda DN, Zhao P, Richard AJ, Ribnicky D, Cefalu WT, Stephens JM. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 3;11(3):e0150252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150252. PMID: 26939068; PMCID: PMC4777364. (Stinging nettle – fat blocking)

Ojulari OV, Lee SG, Nam JO. Beneficial Effects of Natural Bioactive Compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Obesity. Molecules. 2019 Jan 8;24(1):210. doi: 10.3390/molecules24010210. PMID: 30626104; PMCID: PMC6337177. (Hibiscus – anti-obesity effects)

O’Kane SM, Mulhern MS, Pourshahidi LK, Strain JJ, Yeates AJ. Micronutrients, iodine status and concentrations of thyroid hormones: a systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2018 Jun 1;76(6):418-431. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuy008. PMID: 29596650. (Thyroid Nutrition)

Ogunrinola GA, Oyewale JO, Oshamika OO, Olasehinde GI. The Human Microbiome and Its Impacts on Health. Int J Microbiol. 2020 Jun 12;2020:8045646. doi: 10.1155/2020/8045646. PMID: 32612660; PMCID: PMC7306068. (Microbiome & Health)

Pahwa R, Goyal A, Jialal I. Chronic Inflammation. 2023 Aug 7. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–. PMID: 29630225. (Chronic Inflammation)

Pogorzelska-Nowicka E, Kurek M, Hanula M, Wierzbicka A, Półtorak A. Formation of Carcinogens in Processed Meat and Its Measurement with the Usage of Artificial Digestion-A Review. Molecules. 2022 Jul 21;27(14):4665. doi: 10.3390/molecules27144665. PMID: 35889534; PMCID: PMC9322758. (Processed Meat)

Prince MRU, Zihad SMNK, Ghosh P, Sifat N, Rouf R, Al Shajib GM, Alam MA, Shilpi JA, Uddin SJ. Amaranthus spinosusAttenuated Obesity-Induced Metabolic Disorders in High-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Rats. Front Nutr. 2021 May 10;8:653918. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.653918. PMID: 34041259; PMCID: PMC8142894. (Amaranth)

Qin B, Panickar KS, Anderson RA. Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 May 1;4(3):685-93. doi: 10.1177/193229681000400324. PMID: 20513336; PMCID: PMC2901047. (Cinnamon for weight loss)

Qu L, Liu Q, Zhang Q, Tuo X, Fan D, Deng J, Yang H. Kiwifruit seed oil prevents obesity by regulating inflammation, thermogenesis, and gut microbiota in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Mar;125:85-94. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.12.046. Epub 2018 Dec 28. PMID: 30597221. (Kiwi seed oil)

Richter EA, Derave W, Wojtaszewski JF. Glucose, exercise and insulin: emerging concepts. J Physiol. 2001 Sep 1;535(Pt 2):313-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.t01-2-00313.x. PMID: 11533125; PMCID: PMC2278791. (Exercise and insulin)

Rock CL, Flatt SW, Barkai HS, Pakiz B, Heath DD. Walnut consumption in a weight reduction intervention: effects on body weight, biological measures, blood pressure and satiety. Nutr J. 2017 Dec 4;16(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s12937-017-0304-z. PMID: 29202751; PMCID: PMC5715655. (Walnuts promote weight loss)

Romão B, Botelho RBA, Nakano EY, Raposo A, Han H, Vega-Muñoz A, Ariza-Montes A, Zandonadi RP. Are Vegan Alternatives to Meat Products Healthy? A Study on Nutrients and Main Ingredients of Products Commercialized in Brazil. Front Public Health. 2022 May 27;10:900598. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.900598. PMID: 35769773; PMCID: PMC9235150. (Vegan Meat Products)

Saibandith, B.; Spencer, J.P.E.; Rowland, I.R.; Commane, D.M. Olive Polyphenols and the Metabolic Syndrome. Molecules 2017, 22, 1082. (Olives for metabolic syndrome)

Samakar B, Mehri S, Hosseinzadeh H. A review of the effects of Urtica dioica (nettle) in metabolic syndrome. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2022 May;25(5):543-553. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2022.58892.13079. PMID: 35911652; PMCID: PMC9282742. (Stinging Nettle)

Samarghandian S, Farkhondeh T, Samini F. Honey and Health: A Review of Recent Clinical Research. Pharmacognosy Res. 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):121-127. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.204647. PMID: 28539734; PMCID: PMC5424551. ( Raw Honey & Health)

Sánchez López de Nava A, Raja A. Physiology, Metabolism. [Updated 2022 Sep 12]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from:

Schulze M B, Martínez-González M A, Fung T T, Lichtenstein A H, Forouhi N G. Food based dietary patterns and chronic disease prevention BMJ 2018; 361 :k2396 doi:10.1136/bmj.k2396 (Food groups & preventing disease)

Schwingshackl L, Schwedhelm C, Hoffmann G, Lampousi AM, Knüppel S, Iqbal K, Bechthold A, Schlesinger S, Boeing H. Food groups and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun;105(6):1462-1473. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.153148. Epub 2017 Apr 26. PMID: 28446499. (Food groups impact mortality)

Selvaraj R, Selvamani TY, Zahra A, Malla J, Dhanoa RK, Venugopal S, Shoukrie SI, Hamouda RK, Hamid P. Association Between Dietary Habits and Depression: A Systematic Review. Cureus. 2022 Dec 9;14(12):e32359. doi: 10.7759/cureus.32359. PMID: 36632273; PMCID: PMC9828042. (Nutrition & mental health)

Shaban A, Sahu RP. Pumpkin Seed Oil: An Alternative Medicine. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res. 2017;9(2):11. doi: 10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8066. Epub 2017 Feb 25. PMID: 34924730; PMCID: PMC8681145. (Pumpkin seed oil)

Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79. doi: 10.1016/s0753-3322(02)00253-6. PMID: 12442909. (Best fatty acid ratios)

Sindurani JA, Rajamohan T. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;44(1):97-100. PMID: 10919103. (Coconut fibre) 

Singh B, Olds T, Curtis R, et al Effectiveness of physical activity interventions for improving depression, anxiety and distress: an overview of systematic reviews British Journal of Sports Medicine 2023;57:1203-1209. (Exercise and mental health)

Skenderidis, P.; Leontopoulos, S.; Lampakis, D. Goji Berry: Health Promoting Properties. Nutraceuticals 2022, 2, 32-48. (Goji Berry)

Stacey Lockyer, Anne E de la Hunty, Simon Steenson, Ayela Spiro, Sara A Stanner, Walnut consumption and health outcomes with public health relevance—a systematic review of cohort studies and randomized controlled trials published from 2017 to present, Nutrition Reviews, Volume 81, Issue 1, January 2023, Pages 26–54, (Walnuts)

St-Onge MP, Bosarge A. Weight-loss diet that includes consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerol oil leads to a greater rate of weight and fat mass loss than does olive oil. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):621-6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/87.3.621. PMID: 18326600; PMCID: PMC2874190. (MCT oil versus olive oil)

St-Onge MP, Bosarge A, Goree LL, Darnell B. Medium chain triglyceride oil consumption as part of a weight loss diet does not lead to an adverse metabolic profile when compared to olive oil. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Oct;27(5):547-52. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2008.10719737. PMID: 18845704; PMCID: PMC2874191. (MCT oil versus olive oil)

Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ. Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. Exp Suppl. 2012;101:133-64. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6. PMID: 22945569; PMCID: PMC4144270. (Heavy metals and disease)

Thornton SN. Increased Hydration Can Be Associated with Weight Loss. Front Nutr. 2016 Jun 10;3:18. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2016.00018. PMID: 27376070; PMCID: PMC4901052. (Water & weight loss)

Thursby E, Juge N. Introduction to the human gut microbiota. Biochem J. 2017 May 16;474(11):1823-1836. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20160510. PMID: 28512250; PMCID: PMC5433529. (Gut Microbiome)

Tiphaine Vanhaecke, Erica T. Perrier, Olle Melander; A Journey through the Early Evidence Linking Hydration to Metabolic Health. Ann Nutr Metab 9 April 2021; 76 (Suppl. 1): 4–9. (Water & metabolic health)

Tucker LA. Legume Intake, Body Weight, and Abdominal Adiposity: 10-Year Weight Change and Cross-Sectional Results in 15,185 U.S. Adults. Nutrients. 2023 Jan 16;15(2):460. doi: 10.3390/nu15020460. PMID: 36678331; PMCID: PMC9864712. (Beans mprove weight loss )

Tucker LA. Bean Consumption Accounts for Differences in Body Fat and Waist Circumference: A Cross-Sectional Study of 246 Women. J Nutr Metab. 2020 Jun 6;2020:9140907. doi: 10.1155/2020/9140907. PMID: 32587765; PMCID: PMC7294352. (Beans reduce body fat)

Udani JK, Singh BB, Singh VJ, Barrett ML. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: a pilot study. Nutr J. 2011 May 12;10:45. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-45. PMID: 21569436; PMCID: PMC3118329. (Acai)

Vasim I, Majeed CN, DeBoer MD. Intermittent Fasting and Metabolic Health. Nutrients. 2022 Jan 31;14(3):631. doi: 10.3390/nu14030631. PMID: 35276989; PMCID: PMC8839325. (Intermittent fasting)

Venkatasamy VV, Pericherla S, Manthuruthil S, Mishra S, Hanno R. Effect of Physical activity on Insulin Resistance, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Mellitus. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Aug;7(8):1764-6. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/6518.3306. Epub 2013 Jul 17. PMID: 24086908; PMCID: PMC3782965. (Exercise insulin resistance & inflammation) 

Vij VA, Joshi AS. Effect of ‘water induced thermogenesis’ on body weight, body mass index and body composition of overweight subjects. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Sep;7(9):1894-6. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/5862.3344. Epub 2013 Sep 10. PMID: 24179891; PMCID: PMC3809630. (Water & weight loss)

Wang TY, Tao SY, Wu YX, An T, Lv BH, Liu JX, Liu YT, Jiang GJ. Quinoa Reduces High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice via Potential Microbiota-Gut-Brain-Liver Interaction Mechanisms. Microbiol Spectr. 2022 Jun 29;10(3):e0032922. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.00329-22. Epub 2022 May 18. PMID: 35583337; PMCID: PMC9241864. (Quinoa)

Wang Y, Wu R. The Effect of Fasting on Human Metabolism and Psychological Health. Dis Markers. 2022 Jan 5;2022:5653739. doi: 10.1155/2022/5653739. PMID: 35035610; PMCID: PMC8754590. (Intermittent fasting) 

Wastyk HC, Fragiadakis GK, Perelman D, Dahan D, Merrill BD, Yu FB, Topf M, Gonzalez CG, Van Treuren W, Han S, Robinson JL, Elias JE, Sonnenburg ED, Gardner CD, Sonnenburg JL. Gut-microbiota-targeted diets modulate human immune status. Cell. 2021 Aug 5;184(16):4137-4153.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.019. Epub 2021 Jul 12. PMID: 34256014; PMCID: PMC9020749. (Fermented Foods)

Wiley AS. Milk intake and total dairy consumption: associations with early menarche in NHANES 1999-2004. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 14;6(2):e14685. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014685. PMID: 21347271; PMCID: PMC3038976. (Milk intake and early menarche)

Wu G. Dietary protein intake and human health. Food Funct. 2016 Mar;7(3):1251-65. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01530h. PMID: 26797090. (Protein intake)

Wu H, Ballantyne CM. Metabolic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Obesity. Circ Res. 2020 May 22;126(11):1549-1564. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.315896. Epub 2020 May 21. PMID: 32437299; PMCID: PMC7250139. (Inflammation & insulin resistance)

Wu W, Li Z, Qin F, Qiu J. Anti-diabetic effects of the soluble dietary fiber from tartary buckwheat bran in diabetic mice and their potential mechanisms. Food Nutr Res. 2021 Jan 8;65. doi: 10.29219/fnr.v65.4998. PMID: 33613154; PMCID: PMC7869439.(Buckwheat)

Xiao D, Zhu L, Edirisinghe I, Fareed J, Brailovsky Y, Burton-Freeman B. Attenuation of Postmeal Metabolic Indices with Red Raspberries in Individuals at Risk for Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Apr;27(4):542-550. doi: 10.1002/oby.22406. Epub 2019 Feb 14. PMID: 30767409. (Raspberries for obesity)

Yang C, Xu Z, Deng Q, Huang Q, Wang X, Huang F. Beneficial effects of flaxseed polysaccharides on metabolic syndrome via gut microbiota in high-fat diet fed mice. Food Res Int. 2020 May;131:108994. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.108994. Epub 2020 Jan 10. PMID: 32247451. (Linseed/Flaxseed)

Zarfeshany A, Asgary S, Javanmard SH. Potent health effects of pomegranate. Adv Biomed Res. 2014 Mar 25;3:100. doi: 10.4103/2277-9175.129371. PMID: 24800189; PMCID: PMC4007340. (Pomegranate)

Zatterale F, Longo M, Naderi J, Raciti GA, Desiderio A, Miele C, Beguinot F. Chronic Adipose Tissue Inflammation Linking Obesity to Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Front Physiol. 2020 Jan 29;10:1607. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.01607. PMID: 32063863; PMCID: PMC7000657. (Inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance)

Zeng H, Cai X, Qiu Z, Liang Y, Huang L. Glucolipid metabolism improvement in impaired glucose tolerance subjects consuming a Quinoa-based diet: a randomized parallel clinical trial. Front Physiol. 2023 Jul 5;14:1179587. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2023.1179587. PMID: 37476690; PMCID: PMC10354450. (Quinoa – glucose intolerance)

Zhou B, Xia H, Yang L, Wang S, Sun G. The Effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on the Glucose and Lipid Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Nutr Assoc. 2022 Aug;41(6):618-626. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2021.1925996. Epub 2021 Jul 2. PMID: 34213407. (Goji berries for fat and sugar metabolism).