Cranberries For UTIs, Inflammation, Infections, Disease

Cranberries For UTIs, Inflammation, Infections, Candida, Cardiovascular Disease, and Gut microbiome.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections — especially among women, diabetics, the immune compromised, and older adults.

UTIs can affect any part of the urinary tract, including the urethra, ureters, bladder, or in more serious cases, your kidneys.

Symptoms can include:

• Pressure in the lower part of your pelvis.

• Lower back pain.

• Cloudy, foul-smelling urine.

• Urinary incontinence.

• Frequent urination.

• Constant urge to urinate.

• Burning pain when you urinate (dysuria).

• Blood in your urine (haematuria).

Left untreated, a UTI can progress into a more serious infection, including sepsis (blood poisoning by bacteria), which can be life-threatening.

Urinary tract infections are usually treated with antibiotics but are becoming increasingly resistant to first-line antibiotics, especially in aged-care.

Drug-resistant UTIs have become part of a larger problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) where bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are no longer responding to the traditional medications used to treat them.

In fact, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now considered a global emergency in human health.


In an era of antibiotic resistance, cranberries can help prevent and relieve urinary tract infections (UTIs).

As a preventative measure, cranberries are proven to lower the risk of UTI infections.

Cranberries provide important support because a nutritional approach to UTIs can help lower the use of antibiotic treatment and resulting resistance to these drugs.

But they also offer other powerful properties you can benefit from as part of a healthy diet.

Image of the urinary tract and UTI bacteria that cranberries can help prevent and relieve symptoms.


Anti-inflammatory • Anti-infective • Antimicrobial • Antifungal • Antiviral • Cardioprotective • and Anticancer properties.

Cranberry is best known for preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs), commonly caused by bacteria known as Escherichia coli (E. coli).

But because of a variety of beneficial effects on human health, consumption of cranberries is now widely recommended.

Cranberries contain antioxidants that act against a range of bacterial and fungal infections, including Candida albicans fungal yeast (thrush).

Clinical studies have also found that cranberries anti–inflammatory properties can be helpful in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders and several types of cancers.

Cranberries can be used for nutritional support in the treatment of inflammation, infections, UTIs candida, cancer prevention, cardiovascular disease and to support the immune system and gut microbiome.


Cranberries have been found to reduce biomarkers (measures) of metabolic syndrome.

Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease – including abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride levels, and low HDL cholesterol levels.

Cranberries have been shown to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol and increase ‘the good’ HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).

Cranberries also lower glycaemic responses – which is the change in blood glucose content when you eat carbohydrates.

Studies found cranberries also improved vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Cranberries help improve endothelial function, which is the health of your blood vessels.

Endothelial cells make up the inner lining of your blood vessels – arteries, veins and capillaries – and control vascular tone and blood flow.

When these cells don’t work properly they cause your blood vessels to become narrower, leading to chest pain (angina), high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes.

Studies have found cranberries improve vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.


A growing body of research indicates that cranberries can also help maintain beneficial populations of gut microorganisms.

Cranberries have been found to regulate gut microbiota function.

Your microbiota includes a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms present in your gut.

Cranberries have been shown to increase the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) and decrease the abundance of harmful bacteria.

They decrease the virulence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Streptococcus infections, which cause both minor and severe illness.

Cranberries also inhibit peptic ulcer-associated bacterium, Helicobacter pylori.

They even decrease bacteria that attacks dental enamel (Streptococcus mutans).


Cranberries also promote a healthy immune system by interfering with the colonisation of disease-causing pathogens in the gut.

They act against disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens) by preventing bacterial adhesion – a process that allows bacteria to attach to other cells and surfaces in your body.


Cranberries can also help alleviate gut barrier dysfunction (leaky gut) – strengthening the intestinal barrier and blocking damage from harmful free radicals (unstable molecules that cause damage and increase the risk of cancer and other diseases).

Cranberries are used to alleviate symptoms of Candida albicans (thrush)


The beneficial impacts of cranberry juice on gut microorganisms are also encouraging for vaginal health.

Poor gut health can lead to an overgrowth of harmful bacteria, which can then travel to the vaginal area and disrupt the delicate balance of the vaginal microbiome.

Cranberries can help restore a healthier vaginal microbiome by promoting beneficial microorganisms, and prevent vaginal infections like bacterial vaginosis.


Candida albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and another common cause of urinary tract and vaginal infections (vaginal thrush, vulvovaginal candidiasis, candida).

Cranberries anti-adherence properties were found to inhibit candida infections by preventing the adhesion of fungal yeast to cell walls and mucous membrane surfaces (biofilm formation).


Research also demonstrates that cranberry fruit can be a potential natural source for cancer prevention.

Certain compounds in cranberries can influence cell signalling in ways that increase antioxidant (cell protection), anti-inflammatory (reduce pain), and carcinogen-deactivating enzymes (reduce cancer risk).

Cranberries were found to inhibit cancer cells’ growth and ability to spread, and activated signalling that leads to the self-destruction of abnormal cells.

I share live links to these studies in my references if you want to investigate further.

Cranberries are nutrient powerhouses. Cranberries are recognised as an important food and healing agent. The numerous phytochemicals in the fruit benefit human health and prevent many diseases and infections.


Cranberries are nutrient powerhouses.

They have been recognized as an important food because the numerous phytochemicals in the fruit benefit human health and prevent infections and disease.

Cranberries are rich in bioactive compounds (extranutritional elements) and antioxidant flavonoids (plant-based compounds that lower inflammation).

Extranutritional elements provide health benefits beyond the basic nutritional value of the food.

Antioxidants are substances that remove and protect our cells from the damage and disease caused by free radicals (unstable atoms and molecules).

Antioxidants reduce the risk of certain chronic diseases because they lower inflammation in our bodies.

Cranberries have anti-inflammatory effects, thanks to their high amounts of antioxidant polyphenols.

Polyphenols are naturally occurring compounds found largely in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

In plants, polyphenols are involved in the defence against ultraviolet radiation damage and disease-causing pathogens.

In human health, polyphenols protect your body against oxidative stress and inflammation.

Oxidative stress occurs when antioxidant levels are too low, and there is an imbalance between antioxidants and free radicals.

Free radicals are unstable molecules that damage cells, causing illness and ageing. 

Studies show that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols (antioxidants) offer protection against free radicals, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases.

Polyphenols are a rich source of antioxidants that prevent cell damage, illness, and ageing.

Cranberries are a rich source of polyphenols – especially the flavonoids quercetin and anthocyanins.

Approximately 75% of cranberries flavonoid content is quercetin.

Quercetin is well-known for its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antiallergic, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-Alzheimer, neuroprotective, anticancer and anti-proliferative (spread of cancer) properties.

Quercetin has been shown in studies to inhibit the growth of cancer cells in breast, colon, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and lung tumours.

Research also demonstrates quercetin’s therapeutic potential for:

• fighting free radicals.

• reducing inflammation.

• reducing the risk of infections.

• reducing the risk of heart disease.

• reducing cancer risk.

• relieving allergies and asthma.

• lowering blood pressure.

• reducing liver inflammation.

• inhibiting the growth of Candida species.

• preventing different types of diabetes.

• reducing the risk of neurological diseases.

• reducing insulin resistance associated with obesity.

Anthocyanins are a type of flavonoid that give fruits and vegetables their red, blue, and purple colours.

They are highly valued for their antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-obesity effects, as well as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, improving vision and neurological health, and protection against various lifestyle diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

You can see why cranberries are so widely recommended as part of a healthy daily diet.

BUT – not all cranberry products are effective.

Organic cranberry products available in Australia in terms of the in terms of the highest nutritional content.


Antioxidants (especially polyphenols) can be lost during processing, making them undetectable in many commercial cranberry products.

So, to gain the greatest level of antioxidants, the best cranberries to eat are:

• 1. organic raw, whole fruit (fresh or frozen).

• 2. freeze dried whole cranberry powder (not juice powder).

• 3. unsweetened organic cold-pressed 100% juice (not reconstituted, not sweetened).

• 4. organic naturally dried, unsweetened cranberries.

Fresh cranberries can be stored in your freezer for up to three months if they are kept in their original sealed packaging or an airtight container.

Because cranberries are not grown in Australia and freeze dried (whole fruit) powders are not always locally available, I usually recommend organic frozen cranberries or cold-pressed organic juice to my clients.

Dried cranberries are higher in carbohydrates, calories, and sugar than fresh ones. But they still contain most of the essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants found in fresh cranberries..

You can also take cranberry supplements and liquid extracts – but I advise working with a naturopath or chemist for advice because practitioner formulas are dosage dependent.

Seek advice for the best formula for your specific health issue.


There are no set guidelines to how much cranberry fruit you should consume per day.

Clinical research though gives us indications for preventative daily amounts to avoid infections like UTI’s and to promote cardiovascular, immune and gut health.

Depending on the type of cranberries you consume, the daily recommended amounts are:

• 100g of raw organic, cranberries (fresh or frozen).


• 9g of freeze-dried whole cranberry powder, which is roughly equivalent to 100 grams of raw cranberries (≅2 flat tsp).


• 100-150 ml of organic, cold-pressed, unsweetened 100% cranberry fruit juice.


• 10g organic, unsweetened, unsulphured dried cranberries.


Cranberries are approximately 90% water so 100 grams of raw cranberries is equivalent to approximately 10 grams of naturally dehydrated fruit.

The problem is that most dried cranberries sold commercially are sweetened with sugar syrup or fruit juice concentrate and coated with oil.

If you can’t find dried cranberries that have no added sugars, juice concentrates, oils, sulphites or preservatives – then avoid them.

As I often tell my clients – sugar feeds infection (and inflammation) like petrol feeds a fire – so avoid sugar sweetened anything.

I highly recommend you read my blog about sugar and disease, Quit Sugar With PURE Monk Fruit.

I recommend pure monk fruit concentrate to sweeten food and drinks because it has been prescribed for centuries in Chinese Herbal Medicine, and promotes the growth of beneficial gut microorganisms.

But make sure you only buy 100% monk fruit concentrate.

There’s a lot of so-called monk fruit products that mix monk fruit with corn syrup or synthetic sweeteners that undermine human health.

It’s a case of buyer beware! Check the labels of everything you buy.

If you prefer to eat whole freeze-dried cranberry fruit, 100 grams of freeze-dried whole cranberries is equivalent to approximately 800g of raw cranberries.

Therefore, a daily recommendation of 100 grams of raw cranberries is equivalent to 12.5 grams per day of whole freeze-dried cranberries.


Although cranberries are safe to consume, too much can cause side effects such as an upset stomach and/or diarrhoea.

If that happens, stop consuming cranberries until your symptoms cease.

Then slowly begin again and build up your tolerance.

Depending on the type of cranberries you consume, the daily recommended amounts are: • 100g of raw organic, cranberries (fresh or frozen). • That’s equivalent to roughly 9g of freeze-dried whole cranberry powder (≅2 flat tsp). • 100-150 ml of organic, cold-pressed, unsweetened 100% cranberry fruit juice. • 10g organic, unsweetened, unsulphured dried cranberries.


It’s best to consume cranberries just before or two hours after meals.

It’s also important to drink lots of purified or distilled drinking water to flush out bacteria and alleviate the discomfort of bacterial die off.

Die off is also called a ‘herxheimer reaction’, which is an inflammatory reaction to toxins and proteins released from dying bacterial and fungal pathogens.

Some common symptoms of a herxheimer reaction are increased bloating and abdominal discomfort, mild fatigue, muscle aches or even a low-grade fever.

If die off symptoms are severe, cease consuming cranberries and drink lots of pure water until your symptoms settle.

Then slowly begin again.


Not everybody can consume cranberries.

Don’t eat cranberries if you take blood thinners, get frequent kidney stones, or you’re allergic to aspirin.

The high concentration of salicylic acid in cranberries provides similar effects as aspirin, which is also a salicylate.

Drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry supplements can help prevent blood clots by acting as a blood thinner – but is not recommended if you are already taking blood thinning medications.

People with a history of kidney stones are also advised to avoid taking cranberry extract products or drinking cranberry juice.

Some researchers argue that drinking cranberry juice lowers the pH of urine, making it more acidic.

Increased acidity can raise the risk of developing calcium oxalate and uric acid stones.

The issue of cranberry and kidney stones is highly contested with mixed research results, and dependent on the type of kidney stones studied.

If you have a history of kidney stones, it’s best to check with your practitioner before consuming cranberries.

Our cranberry Prevention recipe offers a way we can protect our health and prevent infections and disease.


Nutrition therapy is a powerful way we can make what we eat our medicine too.

And prevention is always the best cure.

In my blog Nutrition For Health And Weight Loss, I share nutritional guidelines I use with my clients for healing and maintaining health and for achieving healthy weight management.

I recommend you combine balanced nutrition with cranberries to create a healthy lifestyle that protects your health and prevents disease.

Because cranberries aren’t grown in Australia, I often use organic cold-pressed juice recipes for my clients.

Organic cranberry juice is also more convenient and available to buy in Australia.

Please don’t buy sweetened or reconstituted juices.

You need a pure, unsweetened, 100% juice product for this recipe.

And if you can’t find one – defrost organic frozen cranberries and make your own juice in a blender.

Homemade juice from whole cranberries will contain more antioxidants and fibre too.

Just add small amounts of purified water as you blend until you create a juice consistency.


First thing in the morning, before you eat, drink 100ml of cranberry juice added to 100ml of purified water.

It’s such a simple recipe that offers so many preventative health benefits.

And if a 200ml drink is too much for you first thing in the morning, split this recipe and drink half in the morning and half before dinner at night.


Cranberries are naturally tart.

If you require sweetening to consume cranberries, please don’t use sugar, syrups, or synthetic sweeteners.

Sweeten your cranberry juice with pure 100% monk fruit extract.

If you can’t find pure monk fruit in your local area, we stock Thankfully Nourished pure liquid concentrate at the clinic.

You’re always welcome to call us.

And if you want a pure 100% monk fruit powder with no fillers or synthetic sweetening additives, I buy mine online from The Herbal Connection in Queensland Australia.

If you already take Nourish prebiotic powder first thing in the morning, just add it to your cranberry juice.

Regarding ‘pure’ water – I’ve consumed drinking grade distilled water for decades.

You can’t get a purer water solution than distilled water.

It’s perfect for daily consumption or flushing out toxins.

As for the argument about distilled water lacking minerals, we get our minerals and nutrition mainly from the food we eat – not the water we drink.

Also, there are no contaminants or municipal additives (such as chlorine or fluoride) in drinking grade distilled water.

And you can purchase stainless steel home water distillers at a reasonable price these days.

Our cranberry infections recipe is designed to work in conjunction with whatever prescribed treatment you are undergoing to overcome an infection.


I work with clients with all kinds of infections, from UTIs to kidney, candida, gut, bowel, lung, and autoimmune disorders.

With any kind of infection, you need to reduce inflammation and strengthen beneficial gut microorganisms to boost and support your immune system.

The importance of a healthy gut microbiome and strong immune system is why I created Nourish prebiotic drink powder for my clients.

It’s also why I combine Nourish and pure, organic cranberry juice in this recipe.

It’s designed to work in conjunction with whatever prescribed treatment you are undergoing to overcome an infection.

You make this cranberry recipe and take it three times a day – first thing in the morning, before lunch, and before dinner.

And if you’re really struggling with an infection, I tell my clients to have a fourth drink before bed.

Talk to your practitioner for guidance.


Before you eat, make up a drink containing 50ml of pure, organic cranberry juice, 50ml of purified water, and one level teaspoon of Nourish prebiotic powder.

Place the ingredients in a tall drinking glass and use a milk frother to blend them thoroughly.


I use a milk frother to combine powder ingredients in hot and cold drinks.

I love the Nutra Organics Whizz Stick – but its powerful.

I tell my clients to use short bursts of blending (pulses) to start with until the powders start combining in the liquid.

Otherwise, you’ll have powder flying everywhere like I did the first time. It was even in my hair.

Milk frothers are also great for making mushroom coffee and hot cacao drinks.

I usually add a small amount of soy milk first, add my powders, and then froth away with my stick whiz before stirring in boiling water.

Start with short pulses and froth until you create the perfect foam for your hot drink.

Best kitchen appliance ever!

The ingredients in our cranberry smoothie recipe are designed to support your gut microbiome and immune system.


I love smoothies because you can boost nutrition quickly in one drink.

The ingredients in our cranberry smoothie recipe are designed to support your gut microbiome and immune system.

You can swap out your morning cranberry juice for a cranberry smoothie twice a week.


1/2 cup fresh or frozen organic cranberries.

1/4 cup of ‘live’* organic coconut yoghurt.

1 tbs organic linseeds (flaxseed).

1 tsp Manuka or raw, unprocessed honey.

1/4 cup unsweetened organic cranberry juice

1 tsp Nourish prebiotic powder.

1/4 tsp Ceylon cinnamon (not Cassia cinnamon).

Add all the ingredients to a blender and blend on high until smooth.

If the smoothie is too thick, add a splash more cranberry juice.


* Make sure whatever organic yoghurt you use contains live cultures and probiotics.

Flaxseed (linseeds) is used to work against infections by soothing inflammation, and increasing urinary volume to flush out bacteria.

I’ve included raw honey in this recipe.

Although classed as a sugar, manuka and raw unprocessed honey contain powerful antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, antimicrobial, antibiotic, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory properties

It’s the one ‘sugar’ I do use to help fight infections, viruses, and fungal overgrowth.

Nourish prebiotic powder is used to promote beneficial gut microorganisms.

Ceylon cinnamon contains powerful anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties.

You can also add a probiotic capsule to your smoothie to boost your gut microbiome and immune system.

If you prefer a creamier smoothie, simply add more yoghurt or your favourite plant based milk.



I love sharing general information that can help you create a healthier lifestyle.

But the information I share is not meant to replace professional support.

If you suffer from chronic infections or disease, always seek qualified advice.

Your health is precious so please protect it.

All the very best,

Lisa Rieniets ND.

Shop Nourish


I’ve included live links to research and studies so you can explore how cranberries can benefit your health and wellbeing.

Abuelgasim H, Albury C, Lee J. Effectiveness of honey for symptomatic relief in upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2021 Apr;26(2):57-64. doi: 10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111336. Epub 2020 Aug 18. PMID: 32817011. (Honey)

Aghababaei F, Hadidi M. Recent Advances in Potential Health Benefits of Quercetin. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2023 Jul 18;16(7):1020. doi: 10.3390/ph16071020. PMID: 37513932; PMCID: PMC10384403. (Quercetin)

Al Othaim, A., Marasini, D., & Carbonero, F. (2021). Impact of cranberry juice consumption on gut and vaginal microbiota in postmenopausal women. Food Frontiers, 2, 282–293. (Vaginal health)

Ankola AV, Kumar V, Thakur S, Singhal R, Smitha T, Sankeshwari R. Anticancer and antiproliferative efficacy of a standardized extract of Vaccinium macrocarpon on the highly differentiating oral cancer KB cell line athwart the cytotoxicity evaluation of the same on the normal fibroblast L929 cell line. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2020 May-Aug;24(2):258-265. doi: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_129_20. Epub 2020 Sep 9. PMID: 33456234; PMCID: PMC7802834. (Anticancer effect cranberries)

Antimicrobial Resistance Collaborators. Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2022 Feb 12;399(10325):629-655. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02724-0. Epub 2022 Jan 19. Erratum in: Lancet. 2022 Oct 1;400(10358):1102. PMID: 35065702; PMCID: PMC8841637. (Antimicrobial resistance)

Blumberg JB, Basu A, Krueger CG, Lila MA, Neto CC, Novotny JA, Reed JD, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Toner CD. Impact of Cranberries on Gut Microbiota and Cardiometabolic Health: Proceedings of the Cranberry Health Research Conference 2015. Adv Nutr. 2016 Jul 15;7(4):759S-70S. doi: 10.3945/an.116.012583. PMID: 27422512; PMCID: PMC4942875. (Gut Microbiome)

Blumberg JB, Camesano TA, Cassidy A, Kris-Etherton P, Howell A, Manach C, Ostertag LM, Sies H, Skulas-Ray A, Vita JA. Cranberries and their bioactive constituents in human health. Adv Nutr. 2013 Nov 6;4(6):618-32. doi: 10.3945/an.113.004473. PMID: 24228191; PMCID: PMC3823508. (Bioactive components cranberries)

Cai X , Han Y , Gu M , Song M , Wu X , Li Z , Li F , Goulette T , Xiao H . Dietary cranberry suppressed colonic inflammation and alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis in dextran sodium sulfate-treated mice. Food Funct. 2019 Oct 16;10(10):6331-6341. doi: 10.1039/c9fo01537j. PMID: 31524900; PMCID: PMC6800821. (Colon Health)

Christian Heiss , Geoffrey Istas , Rodrigo Feliciano, Timon Weber, Brian Wang , Claudia Favari, Pedro Mena, Daniele Del Rio, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos. Daily consumption of cranberry improves endothelial function in healthy adults: a double blind randomized controlled trial. Food & Function, 2022; DOI: 10.1039/D2FO00080F (Daily cranberry consumption)

Chuang CC, Martinez K, Xie G, et al. Quercetin is equally or more effective than resveratrol in attenuating tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(6):1511-21. (Quercetin)

Dajas F. Life or death: neuroprotective and anticancer effects of quercetin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143(2):383-96. (Quercetin)

Deepika, Maurya PK. Health Benefits of Quercetin in Age-Related Diseases. Molecules. 2022 Apr 13;27(8):2498. doi: 10.3390/molecules27082498. PMID: 35458696; PMCID: PMC9032170. (Quercetin)

Donlan RM. Biofilm formation: a clinically relevant microbiological process. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Oct 15;33(8):1387-92. doi: 10.1086/322972. Epub 2001 Sep 20. PMID: 11565080. (Biofilm formation)

Elkafas H, Walls M, Al-Hendy A, Ismail N. Gut and genital tract microbiomes: Dysbiosis and link to gynecological disorders. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022 Dec 16;12:1059825. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.1059825. Erratum in: Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2023 May 12;13:1211349. PMID: 36590579; PMCID: PMC9800796. (Vaginal Health)

Eteraf-Oskouei T, Najafi M. Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: a review. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013 Jun;16(6):731-42. PMID: 23997898; PMCID: PMC3758027. (Honey)

Hisano M, Bruschini H, Nicodemo AC, Srougi M. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67(6):661-8. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2012(06)18. PMID: 22760907; PMCID: PMC3370320. (Cranberries Trial  for UTIs)

Jeitler M, Michalsen A, Schwiertz A, Kessler CS, Koppold-Liebscher D, Grasme J, Kandil FI, Steckhan N. Effects of a Supplement Containing a Cranberry Extract on Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Intestinal Microbiota: A Prospective, Uncontrolled Exploratory Study. J Integr Complement Med. 2022 May;28(5):399-406. doi: 10.1089/jicm.2021.0300. Epub 2022 Mar 14. PMID: 35285701; PMCID: PMC9127832. (UTI’s and gut microbiota)

Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD001321. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001321.pub2. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD001321. PMID: 14973968. (UTI’s)

Jurikova T, Skrovankova S, Mlcek J, Balla S, Snopek L. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Biological Effects of European Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos). Molecules. 2018 Dec 21;24(1):24. doi: 10.3390/molecules24010024. PMID: 30577610; PMCID: PMC6337168. (Antioxidant activity)

Kawatra P, Rajagopalan R. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient. Pharmacognosy Res. 2015 Jun;7(Suppl 1):S1-6. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.157990. PMID: 26109781; PMCID: PMC4466762. (Cinnamon)

Khoo HE, Azlan A, Tang ST, Lim SM. Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits. Food Nutr Res. 2017 Aug 13;61(1):1361779. doi: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1361779. PMID: 28970777; PMCID: PMC5613902. (Anthocyanins)

Kilty, S.J., Duval, M., Chan, F.T., Ferris, W. and Slinger, R. (2011), Methylglyoxal: (active agent of manuka honey) in vitro activity against bacterial biofilms. International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, 1: 348-350. (Manuka honey)

King’s College London. “100g of cranberries a day improves cardiovascular health, study finds.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 March 2022. <>. (Cardiovascular Health)

Li X, Jin Q, Yao Q, Xu B, Li L, Zhang S, Tu C. The Flavonoid Quercetin Ameliorates Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis by Regulating Hepatic Macrophages Activation and Polarization in Mice. Front Pharmacol. 2018 Feb 9;9:72. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00072. PMID: 29497376; PMCID: PMC5819566. (Quercetin)

Lila MA. Anthocyanins and Human Health: An In Vitro Investigative Approach. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004;2004(5):306-313. doi: 10.1155/S111072430440401X. PMID: 15577194; PMCID: PMC1082894. (Anthocyanins)

Neto CC. Cranberry and its phytochemicals: a review of in vitro anticancer studies. J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1 Suppl):186S-193S. doi: 10.1093/jn/137.1.186S. PMID: 17182824. (Anticancer studies)

Nemzer BV, Al-Taher F, Yashin A, Revelsky I, Yashin Y. Cranberry: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Impact on Human Health: Overview. Molecules. 2022 Feb 23;27(5):1503. doi: 10.3390/molecules27051503. PMID: 35268605; PMCID: PMC8911768. (Cranberry antioxidants)

Noreen, S., Tufail, T., Ul Ain, H. B., & Awuchi, C. G. (2023). Pharmacological, nutraceutical, and nutritional properties of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): An insight into its functionality and disease mitigation. Food Science & Nutrition, 11, 68206829. (Flaxseed/Linseeds – Infection & Inflammation)

OUTBREAK consortium. A One Health antimicrobial resistance economic perspective (2020). Sydney, Australia: UTS (Antibiotic resistance)

Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009 Nov-Dec;2(5):270-8. doi: 10.4161/oxim.2.5.9498. PMID: 20716914; PMCID: PMC2835915. (Polyphenols)

Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2015 Jan;30(1):11-26. doi: 10.1007/s12291-014-0446-0. Epub 2014 Jul 15. PMID: 25646037; PMCID: PMC4310837. (Free radicals and disease)

Prasain, Jeevan & Grubbs, Clinton & Barnes, Stepehn. (2019). Cranberry anti-cancer compounds and their uptake and metabolism: An updated review. Journal of Berry Research. 10. 1-10. 10.3233/JBR-180370. (Anti-cancer compounds)

Rane HS, Bernardo SM, Howell AB, Lee SA. Cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins prevent formation of Candida albicans biofilms in artificial urine through biofilm- and adherence-specific mechanisms. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Feb;69(2):428-36. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt398. Epub 2013 Oct 10. PMID: 24114570; PMCID: PMC3937597. (Cranberry and candida infections)

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